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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What enzyme is present in saliva and what does it digest?
amylase and it digests carbohydrates
Mumps is an infection of which glands?
parotid glands
Where are the parotid glands located?
below and in front of the ear
Where are the submandibular glands located?
inferior to the base of the tongue
Where are the sublingual glands located?
anterior to the submandibular glands under the tongue
How many teeth are in a complete set of permanent teeth?
Varicosis of the esophagus is usually caused by...
cirrohsis of the liver
How is food moved thru the esophagus?
Where does digestion of proteins begin?
in the stomach
What are the layers of the stomach wall?
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa
What enzyme do chief cells secrete?
What do parietal cells secrete?
HCL and intrinsic factor
What to G cells secrete?
the hormone gastrin
What does HCL do?
converts pepsinogen into active pepsin, digests proteins, and destroys foreign organisms
what does Intrinsic factor do?
helps with the absorption of Vitamin B12
What does a deficiency of intrinsic factor lead to?
Pernicious Anemia
What does gastrin do?
Stimulates gastric juice secretion
Gastrinoma is what?
Excessive secretion of gastric juices that will cause refractory ulcer disease
What does pepsin do?
digests proteins by breaking them into smaller strings of aminos (peptides)
What are the 3 parts of the small intestines?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What is the function of villi?
to increase the surface area of the small intestines thus enabling digestion and absorption
What are the 2 forms of mechanical digestion that takes place in the small intestines?
segmentation and peristalsis
What does amylase do?
breaks down glycogen, starches and dextrins into sugars
What do trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidase all have in common?
enzymes that digest proteins
What are the final products of protein digestion
amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides
Where does lipid digestion take place?
small intestines by bile salts and lipase
What are the 3 parts of the large intestine?
cecum, colon, rectum
What are the 4 parts of the colon?
ascending, transverse, decending, and sigmoid
What does the large intestine secrete?
What does the large intestine absorb?
water, electrolytes, some vitamins
where does the pancreas secrete its products?
into the pancreatic duct into the common duct and finally into the duodenum
Which pancreatic cells produce digestive enzymes?
Pancreatic juice consists of...
water, some salts, sodium bicarbonate, and enzymes
Where is bile produced and what does it do?
produced in the liver and aids in digestion of lipids
What is the function of kupffer's cells?
destroy worn out WBCs, RBCs, bacteria and other foreign matter
What is the liver's role in carbohydrate metabolism?
Converts glycogen into glucose when levels are low and the reverse process when levels are high
What is the liver's role in protein metabolism?
synthesizes most plasma proteins and converts ammonia into urea
what is the liver's role in lipid metabolism?
breaks down fatty acids to generate ATP, synthesizes choloesterol
The liver uses bilirubin to make what? And where does it get it from?
to make bile
bilirubin comes from destruction of old RBCs
A build-up of bilirubin inthe body is called what?
T/F: the liver stores vitamins and minerals
What organ activates vitamin D?
How do you distinguish a duodenal ulcer from a gastric ulcer?
Duodenal -- pain on empty stomach better after eating
gastric -- pain 1-3 hours after meal
What are the typical symptoms of ulcer?
epigastric pain, distention, belching, sour regurgitation, dyspepsia
Increased colorectal cancer risk is associated with what?
alcohol consumpton and diets high in animal fats and protein
Decreased colorectal cancer risk is associated with what?
high dietary fiber, calcium, and selenium
Gallstones usually consist of what?
calcium and cholesterol
What are the symptoms of bile duct obstruction?
colicky pain, chills, high fever, and jaundice
How can we distinguish hepatic jaundice from obstructive jaundice?
hepatic -- very dark stools and urine
obstructive -- stool becomes grey or whitish
Which forms of Hepatitis have vacine available?
Hep A and Hep B
Which hepatitis is transmitted via fecal-oral contact?
Hep A
If patient has antigen for Hep B does this mean the patient has Hepatitis B?
No, presence of antigen must also present with high level of ALT (liv enzyme).
If ALT level normal, then only history of infection but no disease.
What % of Hep B infection result in chronic infection?
What % of Hep C infection result in chronic infection?
How is Hep B, C, & D spread?
sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, IV needle sharing, mother to fetus
Which vitamins are fat soluble?
A, D, E, K
Which vitamins are water soluble?
B, C
Which lipoproteins are beneficial in prevention of artheriosclerosis?
HDL -- remove excess cholesterol from body to liver for elimination
Which produces more calories, 1 g protein or 1 g fat?
What is the primary cation found in intracellular fluid?
what is the primary cations found in extracellular fluid?
sodium mostly and calcium
In the US, the most common cause of chronic renal failure is?
what is normal urine volume in 24 hours?
1-2 liters
Hyperventilation will cause acidosis or alkylosis?
acidosis -- less CO2 is released from body causing H+ to increase in body
what is normal blood pH?
Digestion of starch begins in the...
Which of the following is not produced in the stomach: HCL, AMylase, Gastrin, Pepsin
Which of the following organs has both endocrine and exocrine functions: spleen, liver, pancreas, gall bladder
About 90% of all absorption takes place in...
small intestine
Which Hepatitis is infected through fecal-oral transmission?
Hep A
Where is salivary amylase produced?
salivary glands
Where is pepsin produced?
Where is trypsin produced?
Where is bile produced?
Where is insulin produced?
Where is bile stored?
gall bladder
Which digestive organ does not have digestive function, but has absoptive function?
large intestine
Which vitamins are fat soluble?
A, D, E, K
Which vitamins are not fat soluble?
B, C
High serum level of which lipoprotein is benefit to prevent artheriosclerosis?
High Density Lipoproteins HDL
How many calories are produced by one gram of fat?
How many calories are produced by 1 gram of protein?
How many calories are produced by 1 gram or carbs?
What is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?
What is the normal pH of arterial blood?
Most human buffer systems consist of what?
a weak acid and a weak base
If a patient has dyspnea and decreased blood pH, usually this condition is...
respiratory acidosis
Under normal conditions, which substances can not be filtered by the renal glomeruli?
red blood cells and large molecules
Under normal conditions, what is the volume of urine in 24 hours?
1-2 L
What part of the kidneys have the function of filtration?
renal glomeruli
what part of the kidneys have the function of reabsorption?
renal tubules
What part of the kidneys have the function of H+ secretion?
renal tubules
What part of the kidneys have the function of urine concentration?
renal tubules
What part of the kidneys have the function of renin secretion?
juxtaglomerular apparatus
Renin, EPO, and Calicitrol are produced where?
What is a common symptom of UTI?
cloudy urine
T/F: The higher in creatinine clearance and the lower in serum creatinine, the worse in renal function.
In renal dysfunction, acid-base unbalance is caused by accumulation of waste products in the body, this is...
metabolic acidosis
In the US, what is the most common cause of renal failure?
Patient presents with edema of eyelids, BP 146/96 , RBC 4.8 million/mm, urine proteinis 2.4g/24 hrs; there are some RBCs and RBC casts in the urine. What is the diagnosis?
acute glomerulonephritis