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184 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Types of cerebral connections
Projection Fibers
Association Fibers
Commissure Fibers
Projection Fibers
connect one part of cortex with a distant location
Association Fibers
connect areas within a hemisphere
Commissure Fibers
connect one hemisphere with the other
Occipital Lobe
Vision, visual processing
Primary visual cortex
Poriatal-occipital sulcus
notch @ top of occiptal lobe
Cakarine sulcus
(preoccipital notch)
located at the bottom of the occipital lobe
Temporal Lobe
hearing and auditory comprehension
(superior, middle,inferior)
Heschl's gyrus
primary auditory cortex
(where 8th cranial nerve terminates)
Auditory Association Area
inturprets the meaning of the auditory signal; correlates sound with visual, smell, etc
Wernicke's Area
specialized auditory area; decodes speech
(Wernicke's Aphasia)
Insula
(Isle of Reil)
short gyri: phonological programing
limen
long gyrus
angular gyrus
reading and writing
(alexia, agraphia, anomia, dislexia, disgraphia, disnomia)
Prefrontal area
planning/organization, motivation, problem solving
(anterior of frontal lobe)
Parietal Lobe
Postcentral gyrus, supermarginal gyrus, wernickes area, angular gyrus
Inferior frontal gyrus
pars opercularis (broca's area)
pars triangularis
pars orbitalis
Supplimentory Motor Area
(SMA)
movements are brought together and coordinated
Broca's Area
Speech production, word finding
in the Inferior frontal gyrus, frontal operculum
Broca's Aphasia
not able to produce speech

word finding difficulties
Broca's homologue
mirror image of broca's area in the right hemisphere
maintianing rhythm of speech
Frontal Lobe
precentral gyrus, pyrimidal tracts, superior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, orbital gyrus, supplimentory motor area, Broca's area, prefrontal area
Foramen magnum
opening at the base of the skull for the spinal cord
precentral gyrus
motor strip
primary motor cortex
pyrimidal tracts
fibers cross over in the medula from left hemisphere to right
originate in motor strip
(move the muscles)
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
Olfactory Bulb
Smell and Taste
Temporal Lobe
meningies
layers of tissue covering brain (dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater)
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter
muscle and brain
Dopanine
motor neuron in brain
(too little results in parkinson's)
Epinephrine
Adrenaline
excitatory
sympathetic nervous system
Norepineephrine
nerotransmitter
parasympathetic system
Serotonine
nerotransmitter
regulator
Endorphine
neurotransmitter
pain regulator
steps of the
synaptic function
1 synthesis 2 storage
3 released 4 receptor
5 inactivation 6 reuptake
7 degradation
salatory conduction
action potential is "passed" from node to node
nodes of raniver
space between myelin
where ions recharge
neurons in the
Peripheral Nervous System are...
nurons surrounded by schawnn cells (still have nodes of ranvier)
Olgodendroglia
cover axons in central nervous system (no nodes of ranvier needed)
Guillan-bare
synapse
junction at which electrochemical is transfered thru neurotransmitter
graded potientals
potiental for neuron to fire up or not to fire up
EPSP and IPSP
excitatory post synaptic potiental
EPSP
cause depolarization on the cell membrane
sodium-potassium needs to stop
Sodium-potassium pump
causes "potiental"
Inhibitory post-synaptic potiential
IPSP
causes a hyperpolarization
(away from zero toward -90mV)
Action potiental
neuronal pulse/what happens when the neruon is active
Strong EPSP needed - charge becomes positive
electrochemical event
chemicals (ions) flowing in and out (Sodium potasium pump is turned off; Na flows in) -70 to rise to -50 for action potiental to occur
neural conduction
how info is transmited down the neuron
Resting potiental
neuron at rest has an inherent charge
(difference in and out is -70millivolts)
Resting potiental maintained
maintained thru Sodium potassium pump -- exchanges itracellular sodium for extracellular potassium
types of neurons
motor neurons, sensory neurons, cortical neuron
Motor neuron
multiple dendrites, one long axon
efferent
Sensory Neurons
sensation/pain
receptors/temp receptor
Afferent
Efferent

Afferent
cause something (from brain)

to the brain
Cortical Neuron
Nerve cells that make up the cortex of the brain

always "fire" in one direction
Presynaptic neuron

Postsynaptic neruon
Sends

recieves
synaptic cleft
space filled with fluid
synapses
neurons communicating with eachother
Neuron
cell body, dendrite, axon (axon hillock), terminals collaterals, telodendria
Central nervous system

Perepheral n.s.
brain and spine

all not in skull (spinal nerves, cranial nerves)
Autonomic N.S.
invouluntary
galandular secretions, internal muscles, heart function, homostasis
hypothalamus
control center for autonomic N.S.
Sypathetic N.S.
internal adjustments to stress (fight or flight)
parasympathetic
The part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the brain stem and the lower part of the spinal cord that, in general, inhibits or opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system, as in tending to stimulate digestive secretions, slow the heart, constrict the pupils, and dilate blood vessels.
Somatic
skelital, striated voluntary muscle
Systems of speech
Nervous system
respiration
phonatory
articulatory system
muscular tissues
striated, smooth, cardiac
Striated muscle
skeletal voluntary muscle
striped
Smooth
muscle internal organs, involuntary
Cardiac
combination of smooth and striated
involuntary
heart
Neurons
transfer information communicating tissue
Glial Cells
supportive tissue
nutrient transfer; blood-brain barrier
(mostly in the brain)
Aggregates
tissue with functional unity
Fascia
tissue
provide support to muscles
ligaments
tissue
connect bone, bind structure together
tendons
tissue
connect muscle to bones
White Fibrous
strong closely packed ligiments binding bones
periostium
yellow elastic
elastic in areas requiring recoil such as trachea cartilidge
lymphoid
lymohocytes make up lymphoyd tissue
cartilidge
firm and solid
hyaline
fibro-cartiladge
yellow cartiladge
hyaline
cartalidge
bluish-white, smooth
fibro-cartalidge
dense-white flexible fibers; intervertebral disks
blood
corpuscles (cells, red, white) plaelets blood plasma
bone
hardest connective tissue
compact bone
naversiancanals
lamellar structure
cancellous
spongy bone; spongy apperance
areolar
elastic supports organs between muscles
adipose
cells with fat globules between muscles and organs
simple epithelium

squamos epithelium
single layer of cells

single layer of flat cells (lining of blood vessels, heart alveoli, lymph vessels)
cuboidal (cubical
cube shaped; secretory function in some glands such as thyroid
columnar epithelium
single layer, cylindrical cells, inner lining of stomach
ciliated
cylindrical cells with cilia, nasal caviy, larynx trachea bronchi
compound epithelium
different layers
stratified epithelium
flattened cells on bed of columnar ccells, epidermis
epithelial
skin, protective lining for organs
nervious tissue
brain, spinal cord
tissues
epithelial
connective
muscular
nervious
abduction
bring something away from midline
adduction
putting something toward midline
depressor
movement down
levator
movement upward
flexion
decrease in angle between two bones
extension
increasing the angle between two bones
anterior
ventral
toward the front
posterior
dorsal
toward the base
superior
ostral cranial
toward the head
inferior
caudal
toward the bottom (feet)
insilateral
same side of the body
contralateral
opposite side of the body
proximal
toward the axis/body or root of free extremity
distal
away from the axis or root of extremity
prone
on the belly
supine
on the back
cytology
study of cells
histology
microscopic study of cells and tissue
osteology
study of structure and function of bone
myology
structure and function of muscle
arthrology
joints
angiology
blood vessels and heart
neurology
study of nervous system
Anatomy
study of the structure of an organism and its parts
Physiology
study of function of the living organism and its parts as well as the chemical processes
physiology
study of the function of living organism and its parts as well as the chemical processes involved
applied anatomy
study of anatomy for diagnosis and treatment of disease
descriptive anatomy
study of individual parts of the body
views the body of as a system
Gross anatomy
study of structures visible without the aid of microscope
surface anatomy
form and structure of anatomy
artist
developmental anatomy
deals with development of organism from conception to adulthood
Pathalogical anatomy
pathalogical state in prganism (cancer, how cancer grows, etc.)
comparititve anatomy
similarities and differences between different species
Basil Ganglia
functions
motor functioning, helps sequence movements(smoothly exicuting), support stimulus/response habit learning
Basil Ganglia
made up of
collection of nuclei
putamen, globos pallidus, Caudate nucleus, amygdala, (substantia nigra)
Putamen
(shell) connected to caudate nucleus
Globos pallidus
(pale globe) combo of grey and white matter
behind putamen
Caudate nucleus

Amydala
tailed nucleus

almond
Substania nigra
(black substance)
a small area of the brain containing a cluster of black-pigmented nerve cells that produce dopamine, which is then transmitted to the striatum.
limbic system
function
referred to as the reptilian brain, memory, emotions
Limbic system
made up of
hippocampus, fornex, septum, mamillary bodies, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, olfactory bulb
hippocampus
conductor of memory - brings smells, visual, auditory memories together
fornex
important in sexual drive
amygdala
memory and emotional reactions
olfactory bulb
area of brain that interprets the info from the nose “smell brain”
smell is the only sensation that does not run thru the thalamus
Thalamus
grey matter
All sensory nerves thru here
Parts of thalamus
lateral genuculate body
medial geniculate body
area around the thalamus
epithalamus
hypothalamus
lateral geniculate body
receives input from the eye visual
Synapse in outside portion before going to occipital cortex
medial geniculate body
receives input from the ear auditory
Nerves synapse in thalamus before going to hechel’s
epithalamus
Contains the pineal body- body rhythm regulation (sleep and wake cycles)
hypothalamus
cluster of nuclei (22 nuclei)
Pituitary gland hormonal regulation
Hypothalamus is important for all areas of human behavior
Diencephalon
inbetween brain
includes thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, third ventricle
midbrain
mesencephalon
tectum
tegmentum
cerebral aqueduct
tectum
(roof)
superior coliculi
inferior coliculi
superior coliculi
left and right cliculus
(upper hills)
Receives projections form the eye
come here before thalamus
Inferior Coliculi
(lower hills)
Receive projection from auditory nerve
Also one left and one right come in here before thalamus
tegmentum
(floor)
cerebellar connections
Cerebellum
(little brain)
input from inner ear, unconcious level, posture and equilibrium, muscle tone
skilled movements/sports
Pons
(bridge)
relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum.
Bridges left and right cerebular lobe
contains cranial nuclei(enter brain)
Medulla Oblongata
base of the base of the brain, fibers run continuously with the spinal cord
once spinal cord inters the brain thru foramen magnum(opening to the brain) it is the medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
(Parts of)
Pyramidal Decussation
Reticular Activating System R.A.S.
Ventricles
cavities within the central nervous system filled with cerebral spinal fluid (c.f.s.)
Pyramidal Decussation
where the majority of the fibers cross over from left hemisphere to right side of body
Reticular Activating System
R.A.S.
gate keeper for sematosenssory info coming into the body, can amplify info or decrease it
(decreases old/unimportant info, amplifies new info)
sitting of a chair...we dont care
Choroid Plexus
areas scattered around that produce cerebral spinal fluid
Glial Cells
Glial Cells
all of the supporting cells within the brain
(anything that is not a neuron)
Ventricles
I (left) II(right)lateral
Third ventricle(dinecephalon)
Fourth ventricle(near brainstem mylencephalon)
Cerebral Aqueduct
connects the third and fourth ventricle
Circle of Willis
insures consistant blood supply to the brain
Anterior cerbral artery, middle cerbral artery andposterior cerebral artery
Anterior cerebral artery
Middle cerebral artery
Posterior cerebral artery
goes to anterior of brain
goes to middle of brain
goes to posterior of brain
Spinal cord
comprised of tracts which are pathways of axons
(housed within the spine)
Dermatone
section of body where spinal nerves connect to (control)
Corticospinal tract
axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord.
only motot axons

efferent
Spinothalamic
afferent nerves run up to the brain (thalamus)
upper motor neurons
run from brain to nerves in spine
lower motor neurons
run form spinal cord to muscle
Cranial Nerves
nerves that arise from the brain (do not run thru the spine)
Cranial Nerve I.
Olfactory
Sensory

Smell
II.
Optic
Sensory

Vision
III.
Oculomotor
Motor

Visual convergence and accomodation
IV.
Trochlear
Motor

Rotates eye down and outward
V.
Trigeminal
Both

Sensation from eye/nose/face
Muscles of mastication and tongue
VI.
Abducent
Motor

supplies lateral eye muscles
VIII.
Acoustic
Sensory

hearing and balance
IX.
Glossopharyngeal
Both
Speech

Muscles of pharynx and stylopharyngeus
X.
Vagus
Both

Sensation from ear pharnx, larynx, viscera
XI.
Accessory (spinal)
Motor
speech
Muscles of pharynx, larynx, soft palate and neck
XII.
Hypoglossal
Motor
speech

muscles of neck, extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue