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35 Cards in this Set

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Abington School District v. Schempp
(1963)
Issue: Establishment Clause

Decision: Held unconstitutional a state law requiring the school day to begin with reading a Biblical passage and reciting the Lord's Prayer
Barron v. Baltimore
(1833)
Issue: Non-Incorporation Doctrine

Decision: The Bill of Rights only applied to actions by the federal government, not the states.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
(1954)
Issue: De Jure Segregation

Decision: The "separate but equal" doctrine as it appolies to public education is unconstitutional; separate schools are inherently unequal.
Buckley v. Valeo
(1976)
Issue: Freedom of Speech

Decision: Upheld the limits on individual contributions to political campaigns in federal election provided for in the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act, but declared unconstitutional the limits on expenditures as well as limits on what an individual could contribute to his/her own campaign.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
(1857)
Issue: Slavery and Property Rights

Decision: African Americans were not citizens of the United States, and Scott had no right to sue; the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional; slaves were property and protected as such under the Constitution.
Engel v. Vitale
(1962)
Issue: Establishment Clause

Decision: Requiring the recitation of a non-sectarian, government-sponsored prayer in the public school violates the principle of the separation of church and state; ban on prayer in public schools
Escobedo v. Illinois
(1964)
Issue: Sixth Amendment

Decision: Statements made by a murder suspect are thrown out because the police prevented him from meeting with his attorney and he was not told about his right to remain silent.
Griswold v. Connecticut
(1965)
Issue: Right of Privacy

Decision: Struck down a state law that made it a crime to provide contraceptive information to married couples on the basis of a constitutionally protected right of privacy.
Lemon v. Kurtzmann
(1971)
Issue: Establishment Clause

Decision: When a law or state action invovles religion, it must have a secular purpose; it cannot advance or inhibit religion, or excessively entangle the government with relgion; Lemon Test.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819)
Issue: Necessary and Proper Clause and Supremacy Clause

Decision: Upheld the constitutionality of the First Bank of the United States under the "necessary and proper clause," and denied the state the right to tax the Bank, noting that "the power to tax is the power to destroy."
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824)
Issue: Commerce clause and Supremacy Clause

Decision: The decision expanded the Commerce Clause to include almost any interstate business activity.
Mapp v. Ohio
(1961)
Issue: Fourth Amendment

Decision: Evidence that is seized illegally cannot be used as evidence in court; the exclusionary rule is applied to the states.
Marbury v. Madison
(1801)
Issue: Article III

Decision: The decision established the principal of judicial review; the Supreme Court has the power to declare a law passed by Congress unconstitutional.
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963)
Issue: Sixth Amendment

Decision: The right to counsel is fundamental to a fair trial; the state must provide an attorney to poor defendants charged with a felony; the Sixth Amendment applies to the states through the Fourteeth Amendment.
Miller v. California
(1973)
Issue: Freedom of Speech and Press

Decision: Outlines a test to define obscene materials that are not protected under the First Amendment. community standards were includes as were LAPS-- a work is obscene if it has no literary, artistic, political, or scientific" value.
Miranda v. Arizona
(1966)
Issue: Fifth Amendment

Decision: Prior to questioning by police, a person in custody must be informed of the following: his or her constitutional rights to remain silent, that anything said can be used against him/her, that he/she has a right to have an attorney present during questioning, and to have an attorney appointed if he/she cannot afford; Miranda Warning.
Gitlow v. New York
(1925)
Issue: Freedom of Speech

Decision: The First Amendment freedom of speech protection is incorporated/ applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment; incorporation doctrine. gitlow had advocated for the overthrow of the government
New Jersey v. T.L.O.
(1985)
Issue: Fourth Amendment

Decision: School officals can search a student suspected of violation school policy; school administrators have greater latitude in conduction a search than police or similar authorities in order to maintain an environment where learning can take place. (teacher found rolling paper in girls purse).
New York Times v. Sullivan
(1964)
Issue: Freedom of the Press

Decision: Public figures are bound by a higher standard in libel cases than ordinary citizens; they not only have to show that what was printed was false, but that the media knew it was false and published it anyway showing complete disregard for the truth.
New York Times v. United States
(1971)
Issue: Freedom of the Press

Decision: The Supreme Court refused to prevent the publication of The Pentagon Papers, a classified documentary history of U.S. invovlement in Vietnam, on national security ground; prior restraint
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
(1992)
Issue: Right of Privacy

Decision: States can regulate abortion as long as an "undue burden" is not placed on women. A 24-hour waiting period, counseling on alternatives to abortion, and parental consent for minors were constitutional restrictions on the right to an abortion.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896)
Issue: Fourteenth Amendment

Decision: Segregation by race was constitutional provided the facilities are equal; Separate but Equal doctrine.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
(1978)
Issue: Affirmative Action

Decision: Setting up a rigid quota system for admission to medical school is prohibited, but race can be taken into account in the admissions process because the goal of a diverse student body is valid; reverse discrimination.
Roe v. Wade
(1973)
Issue: Right to Privacy

Decision: Women have an absolute right to an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy based on a constitutionally protected right of privacy; the state can impose restrictions in the second and third trimesters.
Roth v. United States
(1957)
Issue: Freedom of Speech and Press

Decision: Obscenity is not protected under the First Amendment; the decision recognized the validity of community standards in a test to determine if materials were obscene.
Schenck v. United States
(1919)
Issue: Freedom of Speech

Decision: Freedom of speech is not absolute; the decision established the clear-and-present-danger test as a constitutional restriction of free speech; you can't yell "fire" in a crowded theatre.
Shaw v. Reno
(1993)
Issue: Fourteenth Amendment

Decision: The Supreme Court determined that race cannot be the predominant factor in drawing congressional district lines just to ensure the election of an African American representative; the oddly shaped district of North Carolina was a racial gerrymander.
Texas v. Johnson
(1989)
Issue: Freedom of Speech

Decision: The burning of the American flag is symbolic speech and is protected under the First Amendment.
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
(1969)
Issue: Freedom of Speech

Decision: The wearing of arm bands by students to protest the war in Vietnam is protected speech and cannot be prohibited by school officials; students do not give up their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse door.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
(1989)
Issue: Right of Privacy

Decision: The states may prohibit abortions in public hospitals and clinics and by public employees; limitation on abortion rights.
Westberry v. Sanders
(1964)
Issue: Fourteenth Amendment

Decision: Struck down an apportionment system that allowed for congressional districts that varied significantly in size.
Gratz v. Bollinger
(2003)
Issue: Affirmative Action

Decision: Struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan.
U.S v. Nixon
(1973)
Issue: Executive Privilege

Decision: Allowed for executive privilege but not in criminal cases; "Even the President in not above the law;" Watergate.
Grutter v. Bollinger
(2003)
Issue: Affirmative Action

Decision: Allowed the use of race as a general factor in law school admissions at University of Michigan.
Baker v. Carr
(1962)
Issue: Gerrymandering

Decision: "one man one vote". Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; Warren Court's political judicial activism.