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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of the Nervous System?
-transmits sensory information to the body (rec'vd by receptors, propagate APs TO the CNS)
-integrates info into body (interpretation of info by CNS)
-creates motor response of the body (propagates APs FROM the CNS to effectos of body)
What are the 2 principal cell types of the Nervous system?
Neurons and Neuroglia

-neurons are excitable, synapses all over the body, communicate through APs, short response time to changes in homeostasis

-neuroglia are not excitable, supporting cells, provide "scaffolding" for developed neurons
What makes up the Central Nervous System?
Spinal Cord

-covered by meninges
-surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid
What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System?

-neurons of nerves bridge gap between CNS and body
-bring APs to and away from CNS
What are Ganglia?
part of the PNS
-swelling of nerves grouped together
What is a Nerve?
part of the PNS
-bundles of neurons (axons enclosed in connective tissue)
What are the 3 connective tissue coverings of nerves?


What is the Endoneurium?
connective tissue covering of nerves
-loose c.t
-surrounds each individual axon
What is the Perineurium?
connective tissue covering of nerves
-coarse c.t
-bundles axons into fascicles
What is the Epineurium?
connective tissue covering of nerves
-tough fibrous c.t.
-surrounds entire nerve
What are the 3 neuron types of the Nervous System?
Sensory (afferent)- APs via PNS to CNS

Interneurons- intrgrate info within CNS, recieve APs from sensory neurons, initiate APs to motor neurons

Motor (efferent)- propagate APs via PNS away from CNS
What are the diff types of sensory receptors?
-Mechanoreceptors (touch, pressure, etc)
-Thermoreceptors (respond to changes in temp)
-Photoreceptors (respond to light)
-Chemoreceptors (respond to chemicals)
-Nociceptors (respond to pain)
Qualitative Info
neural integration of the CNS
-what type of stimulus
Quantitative Info
neural integration of the CNS
-how much of a stimulus
-how many neurons are fired
Are neurons of the nervous system myelinated?
-ALL neurons of PNS are myelinated
-some neurons of CNS are but most are NOT
What is gray matter?
areas of the CNS that are made of unmyelinated neurons
-rep locations of short interneurons
What is white matter?
areas of the CNS that are made of myelinated neurons
-rep. locations of long sensory and motor neurons
What is a reflex?
a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus (brain is left out)
What are the types are reflexes?
simple- involve peripheral nerves & spinal cord, spinal reflexes (inborn reflexes)

learned- involve peripheral nerves & BRAIN
What are the 5 components of a relex arc?
-Receptor (respond to stimulus)
-Sensory neuron (transmits afferent impulse to CNS)
-Integration center (within CNS, processing of info)
-Motor neuron (sends efferent info to an effector)
-Effector (muscle fiber or gland that responds to efferent impulse)
What are the Meninges?
3 connective tissue membrane that lie external to the brain and spinal cord
-dura mater - superficial
-arachnoid mater - middle
-pia mater - deep
What are the functions of the meninges?
-cover and protect CNS
-hold cerebrospinal fluid
-prevents pathogens from entering cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebral Cortex
-has 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal & occiputal
-location of interneurons for perception of all senses
-site of memory, emotion, learning
-site of initiation of voluntary muscle contraction
The Cerebellum
-protrudes under occiputal lobes of cerebrum
-11% brain's mass
-resp. for balance and coordination
Brain Stem
-controls basic life functions (heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate)
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland
-secrete hormones which regulate metabolic processes (water balance, sex hormones in blood, nutrient levels in blood)
-hypothalamus secretes hormones that cause the petiutary to secrete hormones
Spinal Cord functions
-attached to brain, extends to lumbar region of vertebral column
-integrates basic stimuli to body below the neck
-sends sensory and motor info to and from the brain
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Dorsal (Posterior) Horns
Ventral (Anterior) Horns
Dorsal (Posterior) Horns
-where sensory info enters the cord where they synapse with neurons
Ventral (Anterior) Horns
-where motor info exits the cord to effectors
What are Mixed Nerves?
-most common type of nerve in the body
-mixture of sensory and motor neurons carrying impulses via PNS to AND from CNS
Somatic Sensory Neurons
part of the sensory division of PNS
-send APs from skin, skeletal muscles, joints
Visceral Sensory Neurons
part of the sensory division of PNS
-send APs from organs within abdominal and thoracic cavities
Motor Division of PNS
-made of efferent neurons
-controls the action of effectors
Somatic Motor Neurons
-part of motor division of PNS
-send APs to voluntary skeletal muscle
Visceral Motor Neurons
aka Autonomic Nervous System
part of the motor division of PNS
-send APs to involuntary cardiac and smooth muscle and glands
The difference in the functions of the Motor and Sensory Divisions of PNS
they both control the same effectors but create opposite responses in effectors
Autonomic Nervous System
-the visceral motor neurons of the PNS
-control activity of involuntary muscles and glands
-APs of these motor neurons are initiated by the medulla and pons
what are the Efferent pathways of the ANS?
-a 2 neuron chain between the brain and spinal cord and effector
-preganglionic neurons begin in CNS extend to ganglion
-postganglionic neurons extend from ganglion to effector organ
Sympathetic division
"fight or flight"
-activated when body needs to expend energy (exercise, excitement, emergency, embarrassment)
-increases heart rate, respiration rate, blood flow to skeletal muscles etc
-decreases blood flow to digestive system
Parasympathetic division
"rest and digest"
-activated when body needs to conserve energy (digestion, defecation, diuresis)
-decreases heart rate, respiration rate, etc
-increases activity of and blood flow to digestive system organs
What are the 2 divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Sympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Division
What are the neurotransmitters of the preganglionic neurons?
-BOTH sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of preganglionic neurons exocytose ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) onto postganglionic cells
What are the neurotransmitters of the postganglionic neurons?
-Sympathetic postganglionic cells release NOREPINEPHRINE (NE) onto the effector

-Parasympathetic postganglionic cells release ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) onto effector
Effects of Noreprinephrine on organs controlled by ANS
-organs are dually controlled have receptors for both ACh & NE

-NE increases heart rate
-decreases seccretion of saliva
Effects of Acetylcholine on organs controlled by ANS
-organs are dually controlled have receptors for both ACh & NE

-ACh decreases heart rate
-increases secretion of saliva