Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the French trade-unionist belief that unions would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society
French trade unions
"tabula rasa"
John Lockes' concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reason, formulate ideas
a direct tax from which most French nobles were exempt
Tennis Court Oath
declaration mainly by members of the 3rd Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France
Test Act
British law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters from holding political office
a community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church
Third Reich
the name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933-1945. The First Reich (or empire) was from 963-1806 (the Holy Roman Empire); the second was from 1871-1917 (the reigns of William I and William II)
Three Emporers' League
the 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria and Russia
Marshal Tito
Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed Communist independence of his country from Soviet influence
an attempt by gov't to control a society totally through a dictatorship that employs the modern methods of communication-press, TV, radio- to glorify the state over the individual
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
pact by which Lenin pulled Russia out of the war with Germany and gave up one third of the Russian population in the western territories of Poland, the Baltic states, and the Ukraine
Treaty of Frankfurt
the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany
Treaty of Rome
pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (aka: the Common Market)
Treaty of Tilst
agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces
Triple Alliance
the 1882 alliance between Germany, Austria and Italy
Triple Entente
after 1907, the alliance between England, France and Russia
Flora Tristan
socialist and feminist who called for working women's social and political rights
Leon Trotsky
Lenin's ally who organized and led the Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional gov't headed by Kerensky, in Nov. 1917
Truman Doctrine
policy providing military aid to Greece and Turkey in an effort to contain Communism (1947-1948)
"Two Tactics for Social Democracy"
the 1905 essay in which Lenin argued that the agrarian and industrial revolutions could be telescoped. It was unnecesary for Russia to become an industrialized nation before the Marxist revolution
the practice of lending money for interest
Lorenzo Valla
a humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an 8th century document giving the papacy jurisdiciton over Western lands
the independent sovereign state of the pope and the Catholic church, established in Rome in 1929
Vatican Council of 1870
gathering of Catholic church leaders that proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility
palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility
Victor Emmanuel III
king of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally
the striving for personal excellence
author of "Philosophical Letters" and "Candide"
war communism
the application of total war by the Bolsheviks to the civil war (1918-1920) at home-IE: requisitioning grain, nationalizing banks and industries, and introducing rationing
War of Spanish Succession
the last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne and culminating in the Peace of Utrect
Warsaw Pact
a military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations
Wahsington Conference
conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy and the US
a reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919-1933
the policiy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies--the dream of William II
"What Is to Be Done?"
essay written by Lenin in 1902 that outlined his plan for an elite revolutionary cadre to engineer the communist revolution in agrarian Russia
William of Orange
Dutch prince and foe of Louis XIV who became king of England in 1689
Woodrow Wilson
president of the US and key figure in the peace conferences during WWI intending to make the world "safe for democracy"
Sergei Witte
finance minister under whome Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization
Mary Wollstonecraft
author of "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
John Wycliffe
English theologian who wrote that Scriptures alone, not papal claims, should be the standard of Christian belieif and practice
the wartime meeting of Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin in Feb. 1945 to discuss military strategy and postwar plans
Young Italy
an association under the leadership of Mazzini that urged the unification of the country
Young Plan
schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr
a type of Russian local gov't with powers to tax and make laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominiated by the property-owning class when established in 1864
Clara Zetkin
German Marxist who focused on women's issues in the Communist Party
Zimmermann Telegram
a secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican gov't in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the US- another factor propelling the US into WWI in April 1917
economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speakig states except Austria by 1844