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52 Cards in this Set

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Parliamentary document that restricted the king's power. Most notably, it called for recognition of the writ of habeas corpus and held that only Parliament could impose taxes.
Petition of Right
The St. Petersburg, or Petrograd, council of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals who shared power with the provisional government in 1917
Petrograd Soviet
Son and successor to Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries
Philip II
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason and critical analysis
Philosophes
Conqueror of Peru, 1532-1533
Francisco Pizarro
The holding of several benefices, or church offices
Pluralism
British legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid
Poor Law of 1834
The July-August 1945 meeting of Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee of Great Britain, at which disagreements arose over the permanent borders of Germany and free elections in East European countries. Stalin refused to hold free elections, in fear of anti-Soviet governments
Potsdam conference
The liberal reforms introduced by Alexander Dubcek, the Czechoslovak Communist Party secretary. On August 20, 1968, twenty thousand troops from the Soviet Union and its satellite countries occupied Prague to undo the reforms
Prague Spring
The temporary gov't established after the abdication of Nicholas II, from March until Lenin's takeover in November 1917
Provisional gov't
Head of the bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms
Puritan Revolution
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization
Puritans
A forcible and illegitimate attempt to seize power
Putsch
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818
Quadruple Alliance
An uneducated Siberian preacher (nicknamed _________, the "Degenerate") who claimed to have mysterious healing powers. He could stop the bleeding of Czarina Alexandra's son - possibly through hypnosis - and was thus able to gain influence in the czar's court, much to the dismay of top ministers and aristocrats, who finally arranged for his murder. The czarina's relationship with _________ did much to discredit the rule of Czar Nicholas II.
Rasputin
The application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events
Rationalism
The "politics of reality," i.e., the use of practical means to achieve political ends. Bismarck was a practitioner
Realpolitik
A terrorist group committed to radical political and social change that claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978
Red Brigade
The Bolshevik armed forces
Red Guards
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Red Shirts
A plebiscite: the referring of a matter to the people for a decision
Referendum
Act that allowed the middle class to obtain political influence. It gave the vote to all men in England who paid ten pounds rent a year and it also eliminated the rotten boroughs
Reform Bill of 1832
The lower house of the German Diet, or legislature
Reichstag
The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed the birth and transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones in northern Italy, and that spread to the rest of Europe
Renaissance
Papal encyclical of Leo XIII that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism
Rerum Novarum
The return of the Stuart monarchy after the period of republican gov't under Cromwell which was, in fact, a military dictatorship
Restoration
The French desire for revenge against Germany for the loss of Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War
Revanche
Marxists who believed that workers empowered to vote could obtain their ends through democratic means without revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, known as revisionism
Revisionists
English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of the population growth
David Ricardo
Italian drive and desire for unity and resurrection of Italian glory of ancient times and the Renaissance
Risorgimento
Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent represetatives to Parliament. The 1832 Reform Bill abolished them
Rotten boroughs
Author of "The Social Contract" and "Emile"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Organized body for scientific study, founded in the 1600s
Royal Society of London
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men
Sans-culottes
The Balkan town in the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia where Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne
Sarajevo
French existentialist most famous for his statement that "existence precedes essence," i.e., first we exist and then our moral decisions and choices shape our character or essence
Jean-Paul Sartre
Top-secret German strategy to fight a two-front war against Russia and France during WWI. The idea was to invade neutral Belgium for a quick victory against France, and then direct German forces against a more slowly mobilizing Russia
Schlieffen Plan
An internat'l organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and steel production; also known as the European Coal and Steel Community
Schuman Plan
The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx's ideology
SDP
The emphasis on the here-and-now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly
Secularism
The ability of an ethnic group to decide how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as part of another country
Self-determination
The four-month Prussian assault on the French capital after Napoleon III's surrender in 1870
Siege of Paris
The selling of church offices
Simony
Author of "Wealth of Nations"
Adam Smith
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle
Social Darwinism
Russian author of "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich," a novel detailing life in a Stalinist concentration camp
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Left-wing Marxists in Germany who hoped to bring about a proletarian revolution in 1919
Spartacists
English philosopher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive. This concept is usually termed Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer
Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV)
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants
Peter Stolypin
German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler-Chamberlain Munich meeting (Sept. 1938)
Sudetenland
Doctrine of Pope Pius IX that denounced belief in reason and science and attacked "progress, liberalism, and modern civilization"
Syllabus of Errors