Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/30

Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Martin Luther
German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world
Ferdinand Magellan
circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522
Thomas Malthus
English parson whose "Essay on Population" argued that population would always increase faster than food supplies
manorialism
economic base of feudalism; in brief, the economic system in which the serfs worked the fields of the manorial lord and provided the material wherewithal to support the noble class
Maria Theresa
Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories
Marshall Plan
program that advanced more than $11 billion dollars for European recovery to 16 Western nations from 1947-1953; the final cost to the US was $20 billion
Karl Marx
German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development
Guiseppe Mazzini
idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states
"Mein Kampf" ("My Struggle")
work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923; the book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non-Aryans
Mensheviks
right-wing or moderate Russian Marxists willing to cooperate with the bourgeoisie
mercantilism
governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy through taxes, tariffs, subsides and laws
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna
John Stuart Mill
British philosopher who published "On Liberty" advocating individual rights against gov't intrusion, and "The Subjection of Women" on the cause of women's rights
Mir
a village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the gov't
Montesquieu
author of "Spirit of the Laws" and "Persian Letters"
Sir Thomas More
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his refusal to acknowledge publicly his king as Supreme Head of the Church Clergy of England
Aldo Moro
former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978
Moroccan crises
confrontations in 1906 and 1911 between Germany and the nations of France and England over William II's interest in colonial gains in Africa
Benito Mussolini
the founder and leader of the Italian Fascist Party
Nagasaki
Japanese city on which the US dropped an atomic bomb on August 9, 1945, briniging the Japanese surrender and an end to WWII
Napoleon Bonaparte
consul and later emperor of France who established several of the reforms (Code _____) of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule
Napoleon III
the former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'etat, ultimately making himself the head of the Second EEmpire
National Socialists (Nazis)
the political party of Adolf Hitler
nationalism
shared traditions and common loyalties uniting peoples, speaking a similiar langauge (there may be dialect differences)
Nazi-Soviet Pact
an agreement between Hitler and Stalin to remain neutral if the other went to war; also, German acknowledgement of Russia's sphere of influence in the Baltics and a secret clause agreeing to the division and takeover of Poland
nepotism
the practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
New Economic Policy (NEP)
plan intorduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulate agrarian production
New Model Army
the disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war
New Monarchs
term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthend their monarchical authority, often by Machiavellian means
Isaac Newton
English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating in accord with natural law