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40 Cards in this Set

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Absolutism
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally
Konrad Adenauer
The first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran king who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years' War and lost his life in one of the battles
Alexander II
Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local gov't
Alexander III
Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia
Algerian Liberation Movement
An eight-year struggle by Algeria to secure independence from French colonial control; the goal was finally achieved in 1962
Duke of Alva
Military leader sent by Philip II to pacify the Low Countries
Ancien regime
France prior to the French Revolution
Anschluss
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938
Appeasement
The making of concessions to an adversary in the hope of avoiding conflict. The term is most often used in reference to the meeting between Hitler and British Prime Minister Chamberlain in Munich, where agreement was made, in September 1938, to cede the Sudetenland to Germany
Aristotelian-Ptolemaic cosmology
The geocentric view of the universe that prevailed from the fourth century B.C. to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and accorded with church teachings and Scriptures
Armada
Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England
Army Order no. 1
An order issued to the Russian military when the provisional gov't was formed in March 1917. It deprived officers of their authority and placed power in elected committees of common soldiers. This led to the collapse of army discipline.
Article 231
Provision of the Versailles Treaty that blamed Germany for WWI
Atlantic Charter
The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the Free World: self-determination, free choice of gov't; equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament
Francis Bacon
Inductive thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
Vasco de Balboa
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean
Banalités
Fees that French peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop, and winepress
Baroque
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter-Reformation
Bastille
The political prison & armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
Simone de Beauvoir
An existentialist & feminist who has written on the psychology and social position of women
Cesare Beccaria
Author of Of Crime and Punishment
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler's attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall
Jeremy Bentham
British theorist & philosopher who proposed utilitarianism - the principle that gov'ts should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number
Berlin Wall
Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin & East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West
Eduard Bernstein
Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet - i.e., by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliament & securing electoral victories for his party
Bill of Rights
Document declaring that sovereignty resided with the parliament
Otto von Bismarck
Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule
Black Death
The bubonic plague that struck Europe in the mid-fourteenth century and killed from one third to one half of the population before it ran its course after 1600
Black Hand
The Serbian secret society alleged to be responsible for assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Black Shirts
The private army of Mussolini
Blank check
Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria-Hungary in its conflict with Serbia
Blitzkrieg
A lightning war using planes, tanks, artillery, and mechanized infantry to knock out the opponent swiftly
Bolsheviks
Left-wing, revolutionary Marxists headed by Lenin
Boyar
Russian noble
Willy Brandt
Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s; he sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe
Brethren of the Common Life
Pious laypeople in sixteenth-century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living
Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet leader who helped oust and then replace Krushchev
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need
Brown Shirts
Hitler's private army of supporters; so known as the SA