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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Anabolism
process of building up complex materials ( proteins ) from simple materials
Catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials ( foods ) to form simpler substances and release energy
Cell membrane
structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell
Chromosomes
rod shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called jeans. There are 46 chromosomes ( 23 pairs ) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
Cytoplasm
all the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane
DNA
chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell
Endoplasmic reticulum
structure within the site a pleasant. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller proteins pieces. Ribosomes are found in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Genes
of DNA within each chromosome
Karyotype
Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure
Metabolism
the total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
Mitochondria
structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy
Nucleus
control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell
Adipose tissue
collection of fat cells
Cartilage
flexible connective tissue attached to bones and joints. For example, it’s around the trachea and forms part of the external ear and nose
Epithelial cell
skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs
Histologist
specialist in the study of tissues
Larynx
voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea
Pharynx
throat. The pharynx is the common passageway for food ( from the mouth going to the esophagus ) and air ( from the nose to the trachea )
Pituitary gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
Thyroid gland
Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
Ureter
one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder
Urethra
tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Uterus
the womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops
Viscera
internal organs
Abdominal cavity
space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen
Cranial cavity
space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
Diaphragm
muscles separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
Dorsal (posterior)
pertaining to the back
Mediastinum
Centrally located space between the lungs
Pelvic cavity
space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs
Peritoneum
membrane surrounding the organs of the abdomen
Pleura
double layered membranes surrounding each lung
Pleural cavity
space between the plural membranes surrounding each lung
Spinal cavity
space within the spinal column and containing the spinal cord
Thoracic cavity
space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
Ventral (anterior)
pertaining to the front
Hypochondriac
Abdominopelvic regions: upper right and left regions beneath the ribs
Epigastric
Abdominopelvic regions: Upper middle region above the stomach
Lumbar
Abdominopelvic regions: middle right and left regions near the waist
Umbilical
Abdominopelvic regions: central region near the naval
Inguinal
Abdominopelvic regions: lower right and left regions near the groin
Hypogastric
Abdominopelvic regions: lower middle of region below the umbilical region
Cervical
neck region (C1-C7)
Thoracic
chest region (T1-T12)
Lumbar
waist region (L1-L5)
Sacral
region of the sacrum (S1-S5)
Coccygeal
Region of the coccyx (Tailbone)
Vertebra
a single backbone
Vertebrae
backbones
Spinal column
bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
Spinal cord
nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
Disk (disc)
a pad of cartilage between vertebrae
Anterior (ventral)
front side of the body
Deep
away from the surface
distal
far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
Frontal (coronal) plane
vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
Inferior (caudal)
below another structure
Lateral
pertaining to the side
Medial
pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body
Posterior (dorsal)
back side of the body
Prone
the lying on the belly ( face down, palm down)
Proximal
near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
Sagittal ( lateral ) plain
lengthwise, vertical planes dividing the body or structure into right and left sides
Superficial
on the surface
Superior (cephalic)
above another structure
Supine
lying on the back (face up, palm up)
Transverse (cross sectional) plane
horizontal plain dividing the body into upper and lower portions