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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What function is performed by the cranial nerve I?
Olfactory: sense of smell
What function is performed by the cranial nerve II?
Optic: vision
What function is performed by the cranial nerve III?
Oculomotor: eye movements
What function is performed by the cranial nerve IV?
Trochlear: Eye movements
What function is performed by the cranial nerve V?
Trigeminal: Motor to muscles of mastication and sensation from the head and neck
What function is performed by the cranial nerve VI?
Abducent: eye movements
What function is performed by the cranial nerve VII?
Facial: Motor to muscles of facial expression and taste
What function is performed by the cranial nerve VIII?
Vestibulocochlear: Sense of hearing and sense of balance
What function is performed by the cranial nerve IX?
Glossopharyngeal: Motor to muscles of swallowing and sensory from pharynx and lateral face
What function is performed by the cranial nerve X?
Vagus: Motor to vocal muscles: sensory from pharynx, larynx, and lateral face; parasympathetic innervation to the GI tract.
What function is performed by the cranial nerve XI?
Accessory: Motor to some muscles of pharynx, larynx, and palatal musculature and some muscles of the neck.
What function is performed by the cranial nerve XII?
Hypoglossal: motor to most tongue muscles.
What is the layer covering the heart and its two parts?
The pericardial sac:
-visceral pericardium
-parietal pericardium
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
-epicardium (visceral pericardium)
-myocardium (muscle layer)
-endocardium (continuous with endothelium)
What type of epithelial cell makes up the three heart wall layers?
simple squamous
What valves control blood flow out of atria?
atrioventricular valves:
Left AV= mitral or biscuspid
Right AV= tricuspid
What connects the papillary muscles to the valves?
chordae tendinae
What does the chordae tendinae connect to the valves?
pipillary muscles
What valves function with the aorta and pulmonary arteries?
-aortic semilunar valve
-pulmonary semilunar valve
What are coronary arteries?
What can be problematic with these?
Once blood leaves the lungs, it returns to heart muscle (giving highest content of oxygen possible) through coronary arteries.
-plaque build-up can cause heart attacks.
Are veins or arteries deeper?
Arteries are deeper.
Ex: carotid artery vs jugular
What are lymph nodes for?
Filter sites that eat up infectious bacteria.
What three arteries split from the celiac artery?
What are the locations of the portal circulation?
What are the three paths the portal system involving capillaries, veins, and arteries?
Where does blood mix in the hepatic portal system?
What is lymph?
A milky body fluid that contains lymphocytes, proteins, and fats.
What are the two main areas of significance in the lymphatic system?
Right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct.
What is the largest body of lymphoid tissue in humans?
What are the three layers of the eye from outside to inside?
1) sclera and cornea
2) choroid body and iris
3) retina
What is the center (posterior cavity) of the eye known as?
vitreous chamber
What muscle can pull back eye to allow for 3rd eyelid to drop down?
retractor bulbi muscle
What is the canal of schlem?
It reabsorbs aqueous fluid from posterior chamber
What is the pinnae also known as?
Where can you find the osseous and membranous labyrinths?
In the semicircular canals in the inner ear.
What fluid fills area in soft tissue cells in the ear?
What fluid is between the osseous and membranous labyrinths?
What tube leads from the middle ear to back of throat?
eustachian tube
How would you describe extracellular fluid between nervous tissue cells?
Sparse since cells are so packed together.
What is branching of neurons called? What are the two types of these?
cytoplasmic ramifications:
What is one way of microscopically viewing only neurons in the spinal cord?
heavy metal technique: stains only cytoplasm of gray matter
What are the two layers of the gray matter in the cerebellum?
-molecular layer
-granular layer
Where is the white matter in terms of gray matter?
-found inside gray matter (beyond granular layer)
What aren't found in white matter?
neuronal cell bodies.
What are the largest neurons in the brain?
Purkinje cells
Describe purkinje cells
Extremely large flask-shaped cell bodies at the junction between the molecular and granular layers.
What is the epithalamus also known as?
pineal gland
What is the "tree of life"?
Arbor vitae: in cerebellum, gray matter on outside and white matter on inside.
AKA: medullary body
What is the criscross section of the optic nerve called?
Optic chiasma
What is the hypothalamus?
A region below the thalamus where the pituitary would attach
What separates the lateral ventricles?
*May or may not be seen
septum pellucidum
What is the purpose of the thalamus?
It acts as the relay center
What knobs are involved in vision reflexes in the brainstem?
Anterior knobs of Corpora quadrigemina
What knobs are involved in hearing reflexes in the brainstorm?
Posterior knobs of Corpora quadrigemina.
What are the four knobs on the brainstem?
Corpora quadrigemina
What does the optic nerve connect to in the eye?
the optic chiasma
How many rectus muscles are there? Oblique muscles?
4 rectus, 2 oblique.
Where do you find the retractor bulbi?
-At base of eye, surrounding optic nerve.
-Retracts eye into orbit when contracted