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411 Cards in this Set

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NAME
this relayes heavily on two defense sysetms: the innate system and the adaptive defense system
the immune system
What do defensive systems does the immune sysetm relay heavily on? (2)
(1)the innate system (2)the adaptive defensive system
The innate system is called the (1)
nonspecfic
The (1)system is also called the nospecfic system
innate
The adaptive defense system is also called the (1)system
specfic
(1)system is also called the specfic system
adaptive defense
What is the innate system?
is like a lowly solider that responds within mins to protect the body to protect from all foreign substances
NAME
this is like a lowly soldier that responds w/in mins to protect the body to protect from all foreign substances
innate system
What is the adaptive defense system?
is more like an elite fighting force equipped w high tech weapons that attack particular foreign substances and provide the body's third line of defense
NAME
is more like an elite fighting force equiped high tech weapons that attack particular foreign substances and provide the body's third line of defense
adaptive defense system
What is the differ btwn the innate system and the adaptive system? (2)
(1)innate defense system- is like lone solider, always prepared, responding w/in min to protect the body from all foreign substances (2)adapative defense system- is more like an elite fighting force equipped w high tech weapons that attacks particular foreign substances and is the third line of defense
What are (2) barricades of the innate system?
(1)the first line of defense (2)the secound line of defense
What is the first line of defense?
is the external body membranes--innact skin and mucoasae
NAME
this is the external body membranes--innact skin and mucossae
the first line of defense
NAME
this has two barricades: the first line of defense and the second line of defense
the innate system
What is secound line of defense?
is called into action when ever the first line of defense has been penetrated, uses antimicorbial protiens, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invader's spread throughout the body
NAME
this is called into action when ever the first line of defense has been penetrated, uses antimicorbial protients, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invader's spread throughout the body
secound line of defense
What is the third line of defense?
adaptive defense system
NAME
this is the third line of defense
adaptive defense system
NAME
this is a functional system rather than an organ system in an anatomical sense
immune system
T or F
the immune system is not a functional system but an organ system
false
What are pathogens?
disease causing microbes
NAME
are disease causing microbes
pathogens
In addtion to the skin, what else is the body's first line of defense?
mucous membranes and thier secretions
NAME
this also includes mucous membranes and thier secretions
the first line of defense
NAME
this is resistant to most weak acids and bases bacterial enzymes and toxins
keratin
How does the skin (specifaclly epithelia membranes), other providing a physical barrier, act as the first defense mechanism? (4)
(1)the acidity of skin mucosa secretes a conecntrated hydrocholroic acid and sebum contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria (2)The stomach mucosa secretes a concentrated hydrocholoric acid solution and protien digesting enzymes that both kill mircobes (3)Saliva, which cleanses the oral cavity and teeth and lacrimal fluid of the eye contain lysozyme (4)sticky mucus traps many microbes that enter the digestive and respiratory passageways
NAME
its acidity of skin secretions inhibits bacterial growth, and sebum contains chemcials that are toxic to bacteria, the stomach mucosa secretes a concentrated hydrocholric acid solution, and protien digesting enzymes kill microbes, saliva cleanses the oral cavity and teeth, and alcrimal fluid of the eye contain lyzosyme, and sticky mucus traps many microbes that enter the digstive tract and respiratory passageways
skin and mucosae
NAME
this secretes a concentrated hydrocholric acid and acid solution and protien digesting enzymes
stomach mocusoa
NAME
cleanses the oral cavity
saliva and teeth
What did cilla on the upper respiratory tract do?
sweep dust and the bacteria laden mucus towards the mouth, preventing it from entering the lower respirtory tract
What happens when pathogens get through the skin and mucosae into connective tissue?
they are confronted by phagocytes
What are the chief phagocytes?
marcophages
NAME
these are the chieft phagocytes
macrophages
What are macrophages?
are cheif phagocytes derived from white blood cells called monocytes
NAME
these are chief phagocytes derived from white blood cells called monocytes
marcophages
What are monocytes?
are white blood cells that leave the bloodstream, enter the tissues, and develop into macrophages
NAME
theseare white blood cells that leave the bloodstream, enter the tissues, and develop into macrophages
monocytes
What are macrophages derived from?
white blood cells called monocytes
What are free macrophages?
wander throughout tissue spaces in search of celular debris or foriegn invaders
NAME
they wander throughout tissue spaces in search of cellular debris or foriegn invaders
free macrophages
What are fixed macrophages?
are permaent residenst of particular ograns
NAME
these are permenat residents of the particular organs like Kuppffer cells.
fixed macropahges
T or F
whatever thier mobility, all macrophages are similar structurall and functionally
true
What are neutrophils?
become phagoctyic on encountering infectious material in the tissues
What are the most abundant type of white blood cells?
neutrophils
NAME
these are the most abundant type of white blood cells
neutrophils
What are Eosinophils?
are only weakly phagocytic but they are important in defending the body against parastic worms
NAME
these are weakly pagocytic but they are important in defending the body against parastic worms
Eosinophils
What are mast cells?
play a role in allergies and having a striking ability to bind w, ingest, and kill wide range of bacteria
NAME
these play a role in allergies and having a striking ability to bind w/, ingest, and kill a wide range of bacteria
mast cells
How do phagocyte's kill pathogens?
by phagocytosis
NAME
they kill bacteria through mechanisms of phagocytosis
phagocyte
What is phagosome?
is the membrane lined voculae that engulfs the pathogen
NAME
this refers to the membrane lined voculare that engulfs the pathogen
phagosome
What is phagoloysosome?
is the phagosome fused w a lysosome
NAME
this is a phagosome fused w a lysosome
pahgoloyosome
T or F
phagocytes attempts are always sucessful
false
In order for a phagocyte to accomplish ingestion, (1)must occur
adherence
In order for a (1) to accomplish ingestion, adherance must occur
phagocyte
NAME
Phagocytes have diffculatiy adehering to this bc recoginition of its carbohyrdrate signature is diffuclt bc it has a external capsule made of complex sugars
pneumococcus
Why is diffuclt for phaocytes to adhere to pneumoccous?
bc in order to adhere to the pathogen the phagocyte regcogze the pathogen's carb signature. Pneumossous has a external capsule made up of complex sugars
When is adherence to pathogens by phaogcytes more likely to occur/ be achieved?
through opsonization
What is opsonization?
refers to the when complement protiens and antibodies coat foreign particles
NAME
this refers to when complement protiens and antibodies coat foreign particles
opsonization
What is respiratory burst?
refers to an even that liberates a deluge of free radicals that have potent killing ability
NAME
this refers to an even that liberates a deluge of free radicals that have potent killing ability
respiratory burst
What are defensins?
are antibiotic like chemicals produced by neutrophils
NAME
these are antibiotic like chemicals produced by neutrophils
defensins
What does NK stand for?
natrual killer cells
What are NK cells?
are a unique group of defensive cells that can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected body cells before adaptive immune system is activated
NAME
are uniqure group of defensive cells that can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected body cels before adaptive immune system is activated
NK cells
NAME
these are sometimes called the pit bulls of the defense system
NK cells
What are NK cells sometimes called?
the "pit bulls" of the defense system
T or F
NK cells are pahgocytic
false
Are NK cells phagocytic?
no
What are perforins?
are ctyolic chemcials released by NK cells
NAME
theseare cytolic chemicals that are released by NK cells
peroforins
When is the inflammatory response triggered? (4)
is triggered whenever body tissues are injured by (1)physical trauma (2) intense heat (3)irritating chemicals, or (4)infection by viruses, fungi, or bacteria
NAME
is triggered whenever the body tissues are injured by physical trauma, intense heat, irritating chemicals, or infection by viruses, fungi, or bacteria
inflammatory reponse
What are (3) benfits of a inflammatory response?
(1)prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues (2)disposes of cell debris and pathogens (3)sets the stage for repair
NAME
this prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, and sets the stage for repair
inflammatory response
What are four cardinal signs of a inflammation? (4)
(1)redness (2)swelling (3)heat (4)pain
NAME
the four cardinal signs of this are redness, swelling, heat, and pain
inflammation
inflammation forces the injured part to (1)--thus aiding in healing
rest
What is considered to be "possible" the first cardinal sign of a inflamamation?
the impairment function
NAME
some believe that the five cardinal sign of this is the impairment function
inflamation
What does the inflammatory response begin w?
a flood of inflammatory chemicals into the extracellular fluid
Describe the phagocyte mobilization (what comes first then last etc)?
(1)neutrophils (2)macorphages
Marcophages bear surface membrane receptors called (1)
TLRs
What are TLRs?
are surface membrane receptors found on macrophages that play a central role in triggering a immune response
NAME
these receptors found on macrophages that play a central role in triggering a immune response
TLRs
How many types of TLRs have been id?
10
What happens when TLR are activated?
TLR trigger the release of cytokines
NAME
if this happens, cytokines are released
activation of TLRs
What are cytokines?
they promote inflammation and attract WBCs to the scene
NAME
these promote inflammation and attract WBCs to the scene
cyotokines
What are the most important types of inflammatory mediators?
(1)histamine (2)kinins (3)PGs (4)complement (5)cytokins
What does PGs stand for?
prostaglandins
What can cause small blood vessels in the injured area to dilate? (5)
(1)histamine (2)kinins (3)PGs (4)complement (5)cytokins
What are TLRs?
are surface membrane receptors found on macrophages that play a central role in triggering a immune response
NAME
these receptors found on macrophages that play a central role in triggering a immune response
TLRs
How many types of TLRs have been id?
10
What happens when TLR are activated?
TLR trigger the release of cytokines
NAME
if this happens, cytokines are released
activation of TLRs
What are cytokines?
they promote inflammation and attract WBCs to the scene
NAME
these promote inflammation and attract WBCs to the scene
cyotokines
What are the most important types of inflammatory mediators?
(1)histamine (2)kinins (3)PGs (4)complement (5)cytokins
What does PGs stand for?
prostaglandins
What can cause small blood vessels in the injured area to dilate? (5)
(1)histamine (2)kinins (3)PGs (4)complement (5)cytokins
What is hyperemia?
is the congestion of the blood
NAME
this is the congestion of the blood
hyperemia
What accounts for the redness and heat of an inflamed area?
hyperemia
Hyperemia can account for (1)an a inflammed area
redness and heat
What is exudate?
is fluid containing clotting factors and antibodies
NAME
is fluid containing clotting factors and antibodies
exudate
What cuases the swelling and pain of an inflamed area? (4)
when exudate seep into the blood it can cause swelling which in turn presses on adjacent nerve endings (2)pain can also be caused by the release of bacterial toxins (3) lack of nutrition to cells in the area (4) sensitzing effects of released prostaglandins and kinins
What is edema?
refers to swelling
NAME
this refers to swelling
edema
What are some benfits of edema? (3)
by the surge of protien rich fluids into the tissue spaces helps to (1)dilute harmful substances (2)brings in large quantities of oxygen and nutrients needed for repair (4)allows the entry of clotting protiens
NAME
some benfits of this are the surge of protien rich fluids into the tissue helps to diluate harmful substances that may be present, brings in large quanties of oxygen and nutrients needed for repair, and allows the entry of clotting protiens
edema
The (1)can form a gel like fibrin mesh that forms a scaffolding for the permanent repair
clotting protien fibrin mesh
The clotting protien fibrin mesh can form a gel like fibrin mesh that forms a scaffolding for the permanent repair-- this in turn (1)
isolates the injured area and prevents the spread of bacteria and other harmful agents into surrounding tissues
What are B defensins?
are broad spectrium anitbiotics like chemicals that are continousaly present in epthelia mucosal cells in small amounts and help mantain the sterile environment of the body's internal passageways
NAME
are broad spectrium antibiotic like chemicals that are continousaly present in epthelia mucosal cells in small amounts and help maitain the sterile nvironment of the body's internal passageways
B defensins
What happens when the mucosal surface is abraded or penetrated and the underlying connective tissue becomes niflamed?
B defensin output increase dramatically
When does B defensin output increase dramatically?
when the mucosal surface is abraded or penetrated and the underlying connective tissue is penetrated
What happens during phagocyte mobilization? In order (4)
(1)leukocytosis (2)margination (3)diapedesis (4)chemotaxis
What are leukocytosis-inducing factors?
are chemcials released by injured cells that promote the rapid release of neutrophils from the red bone marrow and w/in a few hours the number of neutrophils in blood increses four to five fold.
NAME
are chemicals released by injured cells that promote the rapid release of neutrophils from the red bone marrow and w/in a few hours the number of neutrophils in the blood increase four to five fold
leukocytosis-inducing factors
What is leukocytosis?
refers to the increase in WBCs
NAME
this refers to an increase in the WBCs
leukocytosis
Margination can also be called (1)
pavementing
(1)can also be called pavementing
margination
What is margination?
is when the complementary CAMs bind together, the neutrophils cling to inner walls of capillaries and post capillary venules
NAME
this refers to when the complementary CAMs bind together, the neutrophils cling to inner walls of capillaries and post capillary walls
margination
Diapedesis can also be called (1)
emigration
(1)can also be called emigration
diapedesis
What is diapedesis?
is when neutrophils squeeze through the capillary walls
NAME
refers to when neutrophils squeeze throught he capillary walls
diapedesis
What are chemotactic agents?
are like homing devices that attract neuotrophils and other white blood cells to the site of injury
NAME
these are like homing devices that attract neutrophils and other white blood cells to the site of injury
chemotactic injury
T or F
monocytes are poor pagocytes but w/in 12 hours of leaving the blood entering the infected area they swell and develop large numbers of lysosomes, becoming macrophages w instaibale appetites
true
NAME
are poor pagocytes but w/in 12 hours of leaving the blood entering the infected area they swell and develop large numbers of lysosomes, becoming macrophages w instaibale appetites
monocytes
What is pus?
is a mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken down tissue cells and living and dead pathogens that may accumulate in a wound
NAME
These are a mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken down tissue cells, and living and dead pathogens that may accumulate in a wound
pus
NAME
these predominate at sites of prolonged inflammation
macrophages
Sacs of pus may be walled off by collagen fiber forming a (1)
abcess
Sacs of pus mab be (1)forming a abcess
walled off by collagen fiber
T or F
some bacteria such as tuberculosis baclli, are resistant to marcophages
true
Give ex of a bacteria that is resistant to macrophages and escape the effects of antibiptics by remaining snuggly enclosed w/in thier macrophage host
tuberculosis baclli
What is a infectious granulomas form?
are tumorlike growths containing a central region of infected macrophages surrounded by uninfected macrophages and an outer fibrous capsule
NAME
are tumorlike growths containing a central region of infected macrophages surrounded by uninfected macrophages and an outer fibrous capsule
infectious granulomas form
What are antimicrobial proteins?
enhance the innate defenses by attacking microbes directly or by hindering their ability to reproduce
NAME
enhance the innate defenses by attacking microbes directly or by hindering thier ability to reproduce
antimicrobal proteins
What are the most important antimicrobial protiens? (2)
(1)interferon (2)complement protiens
NAME
there are the most important of these: interferon and complement protiens
antimicrobial protiens
NAME
these lack the cellular machinary to generate ATP synthesize protiens
interferons
How do viruses do thier dirty work?
by invading tissue cells and taking over the cellular metabolic mechainary needed to reproduce themselves
NAME
they do thier dirty work by invading tissue cells and taking over the cellular machinary needed to reproduce themselves
dirty work
What does IFNs stand for?
interferons
What are IFNs?
help to protect cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
NAME
these help to protect cellst that have not yet been infected by viruses
IFNS
NAME
these stimulate systthesis of a protien called PKR
IFNs
What stimulates the protein PKR ?
IFNs
What is PKR?
is a protien that interfers w viral replication in still healthy cells by blocking protien synthesis at the ribosomes
NAME
this is a protein that interferes w viral replication in still healthy cells by blocking protien synthesis at the ribosomes
PKR
T or F
IFNs only protect against certain viruses
false
are IFNs virus specfic?
no
What kind of cells do lymphocytes secrete?
gamma or immune interferons
NAME
these secrete gamma or immune inferferons
lymphocytes
What kind of cells do fibroblasts secrete?
alpha interferons
NAME
these secrete alpha IFNs
fibroblasts
What can alpha IFNs be used for?
to treat genital warts (2)has some sucess w hepatitis C
NAME
these can be used to treat genital warts and has had some success w treating hepatitis C
alpha IFNs
What is the complement system?
refers to a group of 20 plasma protiens that normally circulate in the blood in active state
NAME
this refers to a group of 20 plasma protiens that normally circulate in the blood in active state
complement system
The complement system is sometimes called the (1)
complement
What are some of the complements? (5)
(1)C1 through C9
(2)B
(3)D
(4)P
(5)plus, severaly regulatory protiens
NAME
the activation of this system unleashes chemical meediators that amplify virtually all aspects of the inflamatory process
the complement system
What happens when the complement system is activated?
unleashes chemical mediators that amplify virtually all aspects of the inflamatory process
What are (2)pathways that activate the complement system?
(1)the classical pathway (2)alternative pathway
NAME
this is activated by the classical pathway and the alternative pathways
complement system
What is the classical pathway?
involves antibodies, water soluble protien molecules that the adaptive immune system produces to fight off invaders
NAME
this inolves antibodies, water soluble protien molecules that the adaptive immune system produces to fight off invaders
classical pathway
What does the classical pathway depend on?
complement fixation
NAME
this depends on complement fixation
the classical pathway
What is the ccomplement fixation?
the binding of antibodies to the invading organisms and the subsequent binding of C1 to the microbes antibody complexes
NAME
this is the binding antibodies to the invading organisms and the subsequent binding of C1 to the microbes antibody complexes
complement fixation
What is the alternative pathway?
is triggered when factors B, D, and P interact w polysaccharid molecules present on the surface of certain marcomolecules
NAME
this is triggered when factors B, D, and P interact w polysacchirdes molecules present on the surace of certain microbes
althernative pathway
Where do the althernative pathway and the classical pathway converage?
C3
NAME
At C3, these two pathways converge
alternative and classical pathway converage
What does the convence of alternative and classical pathways trigger?
the cell lysis, promotes phagocytosis, and enhances inflammation
What does MAC stand for?
membrane attack complex
What is opsonization?
is when C3b molecules coat bacterial surfaces which enhances phagocytosis
NAME
this is when C3b molecules coat bacterial surfaces which enhances phagocytosis
opsonization
What does CRP stand for?
C reactive protien
Where are CRP produced by?
the liver in the response to inflammatory molecules
What is the CRP?
is used as a clincal marker to assess for the presence of an acute infection or an inflamatory condition and its response treatment
NAME
this is used as a clincal marker to assess for the presence of an acute infection or an inflamatory condition and it response treatment
CRP
What is a fever?
is a systemic response to a invading microbes
NAME
is a localized response to an infection but sometimes the body's response to other invasion of microbes is more widespread
fever
NAME
this is a systemic response to a invading microbes
fever
What is the normally body temp?
36.2 C
What are pyrogens?
are chemicals that cause the body's temp to increase
NAME
these are chemicals that cause the body's temp to increase
pyrogens
What are some benifits of a fever? (2)
(1)in order to multiply, bacteria require large amounts of iron and zinc, but during a fever the liver and spleen sequester those nutrients, making them less avialable (2)increases the metabolic rate of tissue cells in general,speeding up repair processes
NAME
its beifits include(1)in order to multiply, bacteria require large amounts of iron and zinc, but during a fever the liver and spleen sequester those nutrients, making them less avialable and increases the metabolic rate of tissue cells in general,speeding up repair processes
fever
What is the adaptive immune system?
is the body's built in specfic defensive system that stalks and eliminates w nearly equal precision almost any type of pathogen that intrudes into the body
NAME
is the body's built in specfic defensive system that stalks and eliminates w nearly equal precision almost any type of pathogen that intrudes into the body
adaptive immune system
NAME
when this fails or is disabled, the results in such devastating diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthitirs, and AIDS
adaptive immune system
What activates the adaptive immune system?
an intial exposure to a specfic foreign substance
How was the basic adapative immmunity revealed?
in the late 1800s when animals surived serious bacterial infections and had protective factors in thier blood
NAME
this was discovered in the late 1800s when aniamls surived serious bacterial infections and had protective factors in thier blood
adapative immunity
What are (3) aspects about adaptive immune system ?
(1)it is specfic (2)it is systemic (3)it has memory meaning after the inital exposure, it recoginzes and mounts a even stronger attack
NAME
this is specfic, systemic, and has "memory" meaning after an intial exposure, it recognizes and mounts even stronger attacks on the previosuly encountered pathogens
adaptive immune system
the humoral immunity is also called (1)
antibody-mediated immunity
(1)is also called the antibody-mediated immunity
humoral immunity
NAME
this is provided by the human body's humors or fluids
humoral immunity
What provides the humoaral immunity?
the body's humor's or fluids
What is the humoral immunity?
refers to the circulation of antibodies in the blood and lymph, that bind primarly to bacteria, to bacterial toxins, and to free viruses, inactivating them tempoararily and marking them for destruction by phagocytes or complement
NAME
this refers to the circulation of antibodies in the blood and lymph, that bind primarly to bacteria, to bacterial toxins, and to free viruses, inactivating them tempoararily and marking them for destruction by phagocytes or complement
humoral immunity
What is cell-mediated immunity?
refers to when lymphocytes themselves rather than antibodies defend the body
NAME
refers to when lymphocytes themseslves rather than antibodes defend the body
cell mediated immunity
Cell mediated immunity can also be called (1)
cellular immunity
(1) can also be called cellular immunity
cell mediated immunity
Why does cellular medicated immunity work?
bc of protective factors in living cells
NAME
this works bc of protective factors in living cells
cellular mediated immunity
What are antigens?
are substances that can moblize immune system and provoke a immune response
NAME
these are substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response
antigens
NAME
most of thesea are large molecules that are not normally present in the body
antigens
are antigens present in the body?
not normally
Antigens are (1)
nonself
NAME
these are nonself
antigens
what kind of antigens are there?(2)
complete (2)uncomplete
NAME
there are two kinds of these: complete and uncomplete
antigens
What are complete antigens?
have two properties: immunogencity and reactivity
NAME
these have two main properties: immunogencitity and reactivity
complete antigens
What is immunogenicity?
is the ability to stimulate proliferation of specfic lymphocytes and antibodies
NAME
this is the ability to stimulate proliferation of specfic lymphocytes and antibodies
immunogenicity
What is reactivity?
is the ability to react w the activated lymphocytes and the antibodies released by immunogenic reactions
NAME
this is the ability to react w the activated lymphocytyes and the antibodies released by immunogenic reactions
reactivity
T or F
small molecules such as peptides and nucleotides are immunogenic or complete antigens
false
Are small molecules such as peptides and nucelotides immunogenic or complete antigens?
no
What make the strongest antigens?
protiens
protiens make the (1)
strongest protiens
What do not make good antigens?
small molecules such as peptides and nucleotides
What are incomplete antigens?
refer to when small molecules that are not immunogenic are regonized by the immune system as foreign substances and mount a attack against them
NAME
this refer to when small molecules that are not immunogenic are regonized by the immune system as foreign substances and mount a attack against them
incomplete antigens
Incomplete antigens are also called (1)
hapten
(1) are also called hapten
incomplete antigens
What are some things that act as haptens? (4)
(1)poison ivy (2)animal dander (3)detergents (4)industrial products
NAME
posion ivy, animal dander, detergents, and industrial products can act as this
haptens
What does the ability of a molecule to act as a antigen depend on? (2)
(1)size (2)complexity
NAME
this depends on the size and complexity of the molecule
the ability of a molecule to act as an antigen
What are antigenic determinants?
refers to the part of the antigen that is immunogenic in which the free antibodies or activated lymphocyte binds to
NAME
this refers to the part of the antigen that is ummunogenic in which the free antibodies or activated lymphocyte binds to
antigenic determinants
Why do protien make such strong antigens?
bc they have hundreds of chemocially differ antigenic determinants
T or F
most natural occuring antigens have a variety of antigenic determinants
true
NAME
these have a variety of antigenic determinants
naturally occuring antigens
Why can plastic be used in implants?
bc it has little or no immmunogenicity and are not seen as foreign substances
What does MHC protiens stand for?
major histocompatibility complex
NAME
these are a group of glycoprotiens that mark a cell as a self
MHC protiens
What are MHC protiens?
are a group of glycoprotiens that mark a cell as a self
What are self-antigens?
refers to antigens that are not foreign or antigenic to us but others
NAME
this refers to antigens that are not foreign or antigenic to us but others
self antigens
What are (2)major groups of MHC proteins?
(1)Class I MHC protiens (2)Class II MHC protiens
Where are Class I MHC protiens found?
virtually all body cells
Where are Class MHC protiens found?
only on certain cells that act in a immune response
What are (3) cruical types of cells in the adaptive immune system?
two types of lymphocytes : (1) B and T cells (3)APCs
NAME
these include two types of lymphocytes: B and T cells and APCs cells
crucial cells of the adaptive immune system
What are two cruical types of lymphocytes? (2)
T and B cells
NAME
these include T and B cells
lymphocytes
What does APCs stand for?
antigen presenting cells
B cells are also called (1)
B lymphocytes
(1) are also called B lymphocytes
B cells
What are B cells?
they oversee the humoral immunity
NAME
these oversee the humoral immunity
B cells
What are T cells?
are non-antibody producing lymphocytes that constitute the cell mediated arm of adaptive immunity
NAME
are non-antibody producing lymphocytes that constiuite the cell mediated arm of adaptive immunity
T cells
Where do lymphocytes come from?
the red bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells
NAME
these come from the red bone marrow from hematopoitic stem cells
lymphocytes
What is immunocompetent?
is the ability to recoginze a specfic antigen by binding to it
NAME
this the ability to recoginze a specfic antigen by binding to it
immunocompetent
Whether a given lymphocyte matures into a B or T cell depends on (1)
where in the body it becomes immunocompetent
Where do T cells orginate from?
the thymus
NAME
these lymphocytes orginate from the thymus
T cells
NAME
the education of these cells depends on both the postive and negative selection processes
T cells
What does the education of T cells depend on?
the postive and negatve selection processes
What is the postive selection?
occurs in the thymic cortex is essentially an MHC restriction process
NAME
this occurs in the thymic cortex is essentially an MHC restriction process
postive selection
WHat is the MHC restriction process?
is the process by which T cells whose receptors are capable of recoginzing self MHC molecules are id
NAME
this is a process by which T cells whose receptors are capable of recoginzing self MHC molecules are id
MHC restriction process
NAME
this produces a army of self MHC restricted T cells
MHC restriction process
T cells that make it through postive selections are then tested by (1)
a negative selection
T cells that make it through the (1) are tested by a negative selection
postive selection
What is the negative selection?
is when T cells that bind too strongly to self MHC or to MHC bound to self peptides are eliminated
NAME
this is when T cells that bind too strongly to self MHC or MHC bound to self peptides are eliminated
negative selection
NAME
this ensures that the T cells surviving the secound screen process exhibit self tolerance
negative selection
What is the purpose to the negative selection?
to ensure that T cells surviving the secound screen process exhibit self tolerance
What is self tolerance?
is the relative unresponsiveness to self antigens
NAME
this is the relative unresponsiveness to self antigens
self tolerance
T or F
little is known about the factors that control B cell maturation
true
What is anergy?
refers to when some self-reactive B cells are inactivated
NAME
is when some self reactive B cells are inactiavted
anergy
What is clonal deletion?
refers to when others are killed outright or physcially eliminated
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
are the lymphoid organs where lymphocytes become immunocompetent
NAME
these are the lymphoid organs where lymphocytes become immunocompetent
the primary lypmhoid organs
Whare the specfic primary lymphoid organs ? (2)
the bone marrow and thymus
NAME
these include the bone marrow and the thymus
primary lymphoid organs
What are the secound ary lymphoid organs?
are all other lymphoid organs
T or F
all cell type (T and B cells) are capable of responding to the same antigens
true
T or F
it is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specfic foreign substances our immune system will be able to recoginze and resist
true
What determines what specfic foreign substance or immune system will be able to recoginze and resist foreign substance our immune system will be bale to recoginze and resist
our genes
What happen after lymphocytes become immunocompetent?
they are exported to the lymph nodes, spleen, and other secondary lymphoid organs where the ecounters w antiens occurs
What are antigen presenting cells?
engulf antigens and then present fragments of these antigens, like signal flag, on thier own surfaces where they can be recoginzed by T cells
NAME
these engulf antigens and then present fragements of these antigens, like signal flag, no thier own surfaces where they can be recoginzed by T cells for destruction
antigen presenting cells
What are some major cells that act as antigen presenting cells? (4)
(1)dendritc cells present in the connective tissue (2)marcophages (3)activated B cells (4)Langerhan's cells of the skin epidermis
NAME
some of these include dendritic cells present in the conective tissue, marcophages, activated B cells, and Langerhan's cells of the skin in the epidermis
antigen presenting cells
NAME
these are the body's frontiers
dendrtic
What do activated lymphocytes do?
release chemicals that rev up the moblization and maturation of dendritic cells and prod macrophages to become activated marcophages
NAME
when these are activated, they release chemicals that rev up the mobilization and maturation of dendritic cells and prod marcophages to become activated macrophages
activated lymphocytes
T cells, and dendrtic cells tend t oproplate the (1)
germinal centeres
NAME
thse tend to proplate the germinal centers
T cels and dendrtic cells
macrophages are clustered around (1)
medullary sinuses
NAME
these tend to be clustered around medullary sinuses
macrophages
NAME
these cells tend to remain fixed in lymphoid organs, as if waiting for antigens to come to them
marcophages
Where are macrophages found?
tend to remain fized in lymphoid organs, as if waiting for antigens to come to them
Where are T cells found?
they circulate continously throughout the body
NAME
these cells circulate continously throughout the body
T cells
What does the spleen do?
act as a filter to trap bloodborne antigens
NAME
this acts as a filter to trap bloodborne antigens
spleen
NAME
research suggest that these are the iniiators of the adaptive immunity
dendritic cells
What does the adaptive system's response depend on? (2)
the ability of cells to (1) recoginze antigens in the body by binding to them (2)to communicate w one another so that the whole system mounts a response specfic to those antigens
NAME
the launch of this system depends on the ability of cells to recoginze antigens in the body by binding to them, and to communicate w one another so that the whole system mounts a response specfic to those antigens
adapative immune system
What is the antigen challenge?
is the first encounter btwn an immunocompetent but naive lymphocyte and an invading antigens
NAME
is the first encounter btwn an immunocompetent but naive lymphocyte and an invading antigens
antigen challenge
Where does teh antigen challenge take place?
in the spleen or lymph node
NAME
this usally takes place in the spleen or lypmh node
the antigen challenge
What produces a humoral immune response?
if the lympocyte is a B cell
If the lymphocyte is a B cell, the challenging antigen prokes a (1)
humoral response
If the lymhocyte is a (1) the challenging antigen prokes a humoral response
B cells
How are naive B cells activated?
by when antigens bind to its surface receptors and cross link adjacent receptors togther
NAME
this is activated by when antigens bind to its surface receptors and cross link adjacent receptors together
naive B cells
The activation of naive B cells trigger (1)
colonal selection
What triggers the colonal selection?
the activation of naive B cells
what does clonal selection stimulate?
the B cells to grow and then multiply rapidly to form an army of cells all exactly like itself and bearing the same antigen specfic receptors
NAME
this stimulates B cells to grow and then multiply rapidly to form an army of cells all exactly like itself and bearing the same antigen specfic receptors
clonal selection
What is the clone?
the resulting family of indentical cells
NAME
this is the resulting family of indentical cells
clone
Most cells of the clone become (1)
plasma cells
Most cells of the (1)become plasma cells
clone
What are plasma cells/
are the antibody secreting effector cells of the humoral response
NAME
these are the antibody secreting effector cells of the humoral response
plasma cells
What are memory cells?
are cells that can mount an almost immediate humoral response if the encounter the same antigen again at some future time
NAME
these are cellst hat can mount an almost immediate humoral response if they encounter the same antigen at some future time
memory cells
What is the primary immune response?
occurs at the first exposure to particular antigen and typically has a lag period of 3 to 6 days after antigen challenge
NAME
this occurs are first exposure to particular antigens and typically has a lag period of 3 to 6 days after antigen challenge
primary immune response
When does a secoundary response occu?
if and when someone is reexposed to the same antigen, whether it's the second or the twenty second time
NAME
this occurs if and when someone is reezposed to the same antigen, whether it's the second or the twenty second time
secoundary response
NAME
this response is faster, more prolonged and more effecte
secondary response
Why is the secondary response faster, and more prolonged and more effective?
bc the immune sysetm has already been primed to the antigen and sensitzed memory cells are already in place
a primary response sets up a pool of activated lymphocytes and generates (1)
memory cells that can mount secoundary responses
When your B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies, againsts them, you are exhibiting (1)
active humoral immmunity
What is active humoral immunity?
refers to when your B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodes against them
How does one get active humoral immunity?
it is (1)naturalaly accuired when you get a bacteria or viral infection (2)articfially acquired when you receive vaccines
NAME
this can be naturally acquired or artifically acquired when you receive a vaccine
humoral immunity
What are (2) benefits of vaccines?
(1)they spare us most of the symptoms and discomfort of the disease that would overwise occur during primary response (2) thier weakened antigens provide functional antigenic determinants that are both immunogenic and reactive
NAME
these have two benfits they spare us most of the symptoms and discomfort of the disease that would otherwise occur during primary response and thier weakened antigens provide functional antigenic determinants that are both immunogenic and reactive
vaccines
What is the passive humoral immunity?
refers to immunity that is conferred naturally on a fetus when the mother's antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation
NAME
this refers to immunity that is conferred naturally on a fetus when the mother's antibodes cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation
passive humoral immunity
Antibodies are also called (1)
immunoglobulins
(1) are also called immunoglobulines
antibodies
NAME
these consituite the gamma globulins part of blood protiens
antibodies
Antibodies consituite the (1)
gamma globulins part of blood protiens
What secretes Antibodies?
B cells or plasma cells
NAME
these are secreted by the B cells or plasma cells
antibodies
What is a immunodeifiecny?
is any cogenital or acquired condition that causes immune cells, phagocytes, or complement to behave abnormally
NAME
this is any cogenital or accquired condition that cuases immune cells, phagocytes, or complement to behave abnormally
immuno defeiciney
What is the most devasting congenitial condition?
SCID
The SCId is the most (1) of the congenitial condition
SCID
What does SCID stand for?
severe combined immunodeficiency syndromes
What do SCID result from?
a marked deficit of B and T cells
NAME
this results from a marked deficit of B and T cells
SCID
What does AIDS stand for?
Accquired immune deficiency syndrome
NAME
this cripples the immune system by interfering w the activity of the helper T cells
AIDS
What does HIV stand for?
human immunodeficeincy virus
What does the HIV virus do?
destroys Th cells thus depressing cell mediated immunity
NAME
destroys the Th cells thus depressing cell mediated immunity
HIV virus
What is autoimmunity?
is when the immune system loses it ability to distinguish self from foreign antibodies and the body produces antibodies and sensitzed Tc cells that destroy its own tissues
NAME
is when the immune system loses it ability to distinguish self from foreign antibodies and the body produces antibodies and sensitzed Tc cells that destroy its own tissues
autoimmunity
What is multiple sclerosis?
destroys the white matter of the brain and spinal cord
NAME
this destroys the white matter of the brian spinal cord
multiple sclerosis
What is myasthenia gravis?
which impairs communication btwn nerves and skeletal muscles
NAME
this impairs communication btwn nerves and skeletal muscles
myasthenia gravis
What is the grave's disease?
which prompts the thyroid gland to produce excesssive amount of thyroxine
NAME
this promopts the thyroid gland to produce excessive amounts of thyroxine
Grave's disease
What is Type I juvenile diabtes mellitus?
which destroys pancreatic beta cells, resulting in a deficit o insulin and inability to use carbs
NAME
this destorys pancreatic beta cells, resulting in a deficit of insulin and a inability to use carbs
Type I juvenile diabetes
What is systemic lupuserythematosus?
a systemtic disease that particually affects the kidneys, heart, lungs, and the skin
NAME
this is a systemic disease that particually affects the kidneys, heart, lungs, and the skine
SLE
What does SLE stand for?
systemic lupus erythematosus
What is Glomerulonephritis?
is a severe impairment of renal function
NAME
this is a severe impairment of renal function
glomerulonephritis
What is rheumatoid arthrits?
which systematically destroys the joints
NAME
this systematically destorys the joints
rehumatoid arthritis
What is thalidomide?
is a drug that was used to treat nausea in pregant women and cuased tragic birth defects bc it inhibited the immune system's production of alpha TNE
NAME
this is a drug that was used to treat nausea in pregant women and caused tragic birth defects bc it inhibited the immune system's production of alpha TNE
thalidomide
What might trigger autoimmunity? (3)
(1)lymphocyte programming is ineffective (2)new self antigens appear (3)foreign antigens resemble self antigens
NAME
this may be triggered by ineffective lymphocyte programming, new self antigens appear, and foreign antigens resemble self antigens
autoimmunity