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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sequence of urine from the kidney
minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra
what does the bowman's capsule contain
parietal layer, visceral layer(podocytes), filtration slits
what type of epithelium does the urinary bladder contain
transitional epithelium
when are kidney's stimulated to produce renin
granular cells are stimulated to release renin
what are the blood vessels of the renal column
interlobar artery and interlobar vein
what gland is on top of the kidney
what aretery is the boundary of the cortex and the medulla
arcuate arteries
the glomerulus differs from other capillaries b/c it is drained by...
efferent arterioles
what is the movement of urine through the ureters dependent on
strength/frequency of peristaltic waves controlled by the ureteral smooth muscle that responds to stretching
what is the function of fatty tissue surrounding the kidney
protection and attachment to the posterior body wall
what is the renal corpsucle made of
glomerular capsule and glomerulus
define nephron
structural and functional units of the kidney that consists of the glomerulus and renal tubule
function of juxtaglomerular apparatus
consists of justaglomerular cell(granular cells) and macula densa cells that play important roles in regulating the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure
purpose of glomerular hydrostatic pressure
it is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane
histology of ureters
the ureter wall is trilayered: mucosa(transitional epithelium), muscularis(2 smooth muscle sheets), adventitia(fibrous connective)
what is the trigger that initiates micturition
visceral afferent impulses activate the micturition center of the dorsolateral pons, this center signals the parasympathetic neurons that stimulate contraction of the detrusor muscle
filtration membrane is composed of
3 layers: fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries, veisceral membrane of the glomerular capsule, intervening basement membrane composed of the fused basal laminae of the other layers
what process is done inorder to reabsorb water by the reanal tubules
water moves by osmosis into the peritubular capillaries, a process aided by water-filled channels called aquaporins: obligatory water reabsorption
what controlls electrolyte reabsorption in the renal tubules
macula densa cells respond to
changes in the NaCl content of filtrate
substance not reabsorbed by the PCT
fluid in the bowman's capsule is similar to plasma except...
it doesn't contain proteins
what inhibits the release of ADH
function of angeostensin II
it acts in 5 ways to stabilize systemic blood pressure and extracellular fluid volume
what are the 5 ways agneostensin II stabilizes systemic blood pressure and extracellular fluid volume
activates smooth muscle of arterioles raising mean arterial blood pressure, stimulates reabsorption of Na, stimulates sypothalamus to release ADH, increses fluid reabsorption, targets the glomerular mesangial cells
specific gravity of urine
ratio of the mass of urine to the mass of an equal volume of distille water; urine: 1.001-1.035 water:1.0
sequence from formation of urine to its elimination
kidney--> ureter-->urinary bladder--> urethra
type of epithelium of parietal layer of glomerular capsule
simple squamous
parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus
enlarged smooth muscle cells, secretory granules, macula densa, mesanglial cells
tubular reabsorption by active mechanisms involve what kind of gradient
active pumping of Na results in a strong electrochemical gradient
how much fluid leaves the body daily
discuss fetal kidneys
by the 5th week final metanephrons develop and become the adult kidney; fetal kidneys do not work hard until after birth b/c the mother's do the work; kidneys develop in the pelvis; 3 different sets of kidneys develop from the urogenital ridges
describe kidney function in older adults
kidney function declines with age, the kidneys shrink as the nephrons decrease in size and number, and the tubule cells become less efficient
sequence of renal artery branching
the renal artery divides into 5 segmental areries--> several interlobar arteries--> arcuate arteries--> cortical radiate arteries
what controls reabsorption of water
what is the pH suppose to be inthe kidney
only organ not in a cavity
where does net filtratoin pressure come from
the aorta
sodium reabsorption...
uses ATP