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81 Cards in this Set

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site of external respiration
alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
external respiration
aka pulmonary gas exchange; the diffusion of O2 from air in the alveoli of the lungs to blood in pulmonary capillaries and the diffusion of CO2 in the opposite direction
site of internal respiration
systemic capillaries and tissue cells
internal respiration
aka systemic gas exchange; gas exchange between systemic capillaries and tissue cells
vocal cords
folds of tough tissue (mucous membranes) within the larynx; as air moves over the cords they vibrate and produce sound; stretched make high pitched sounds and relaxed make low pitch sounds
sound
originates from the vibration of the vocal folds; the pharynx, mouth, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses all at as resonatiing chambers; muscles of the face, tongue, and libps form words.
nasal cavity
lined with mucous membrane – warms and moistens air - trapping particles - hairs filter the air
pharynx
the throat; funnel shaped tube; muscular tube lined by mucous membrane in three regions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
larynx
Connects pharynx with trachea;
epiglottis
a flap to prevent food from going into the trachea; part of pharynx
glottis
during swallowing, it is covered by the epiglottis
thyrold cartilage
Adam’s apple
cricoid cartilage
connects the larynx and the trachea
tracheal cartilage
holds the shape of the trachea
trachea
extends from larynx to primary bronchi - smooth muscular tube held open by the C-rings of hyaline cartilage - lined with psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Bronchi
where the trachea divides into the left and right primary bronchi (tubes); continues and divides into smaller and smaller tubes (branches) deep into lung tissue; walls contain cartilaginous rings
bronchiole
wall contain smooth muscle
Bronchial Tree
trachea - primary bronchi - secondary bronchi - tertiary bronchi - bronchioles - terminal bronchioles
Lungs
fills the the thoracic cavity; enclosed by pleural membrans that enclose and protect them.
pleural membrane
double layered serous membrane that encloses and protects each lung;
parietal pleura
superficial of pleural membrane that is attached to the thoracic cavity wall
visceral pleura
deep layer that covers the lungs
pleural cavity
lubricating fluid that is secreted between pleural layers to keep them slippery (surface tension)
right lung
has 3 lobes
left lung
has 2 lobes
hilum
where blood vessels and airways enter the lungs forming the “root” of the lungs
lobules
microscopic compartments where bronchiopulmonary segments end: functional units of the lungs
lobules contain
lymphatics; arterioles and venules; respiratory and terminal bronchioles; alveolar, ducts, sacs, aveoli
Alveoli
small grape-like clusters of elastic sacs located at the ends of the bronchiopulmonary segments and surrounded by capillaries
alveolar walls
one layer of simple squamous epithelium; where O2 and CO2 are exchanged
septal cells
type of aveolar cell that produces fluid that moistens the cell and releases surfactant to keep alveoli from collapsing following expiration
ventilation
air flows between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs because of alternating pressure differences created by the contraction and relaxation of respiratory muscles.
rate of airflow and breathing effort
is influenced by alveolar surface tension, compliance of the lungs and airway resistance
breathing
requires muscular activity and changes in chest size (thoracic cavity); air moves into lungs when pressure inside lungs is less than atmospheric pressure; air moves out of the lungs when pressure inside lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; chronic obstruction of air flow into the lungs; ex. emphysema and chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
destruction of the walls of the alveoli, producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation; less surface area for gas exchange
chronic bronchitis
excessive secretion of bronchial mucus accompanied by a productive cough that last 3 months for two successful years; smoking leading cause.
asthma
chronic airway inflammation, airway hypersensitivity to a variety of stimuli and airway obstruction; trigger is an allergen
tuberculosis
highly communicable bacterial infection - destroys lungs - leaves fibrous tissue behind
coryza
common cold
influenza
caused by virus; symptoms include chills, fever, headache, and muscle aches
pneumonia
acute infection or inflammation of the alveoli
cystic fibrosis
hereditary disease mucus clogs respiratory passages (also pancreas, salivary and sweat glands)
pulmonary edema
excess fluid in lungs; can be a sign of congestive heart failure
SARS
severe acute respiratory syndrome) - emerging infectious disease with a high fatality rate
Boyle’s Law
pressure of gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the container (chest cavity)
Tidal Volume
the volume of one breath of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal respiratory cycle - about 500 mL into and out of the lungs
dead space
150 mL stays in the conducting airways - as anatomic (respiratory) dead space (usually equal to your ideal weight)
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
maximum volume that can be moved into respiratory tract after normal inspiration (3100 mL/male, 1900 mL/female)
expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
– maximum volume that can be forced out of respiratory tract after a normal expiration (1200 mL/male, 700 mL/female)
residual volume (RV)
volume remaining in the respiratory tract after maximum expiration keeps alveoli slightly inflated (1200 mL/male, 1100 mL/female)
process of respiration
3 steps - 1. pulmonary ventilation (breathing) 2. external (pulmonary) respiration (exchange of gas at the aveoli and pulm. capillaries 3. Internal respiration (exchange of gas at tissue level and cellular level)
inhalation
aka inspiration; contraction of the diaphragm (goes down) and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax (lift ribs up), decreasing pressure in the thorax - air rushes in - the lungs expand
exhalation
aka expiration; diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax - chest wall and lungs recoil as thoracic volume decreases - intrapleural and alveolar pressures increase; air is forced out of lungs; passive process
Dalton’s Law
each gas in a gas mixture exerts its own pressure (think of pressure as a concentration) as if no other gasses are present; total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of all the gasses = p
Henry’s Law
the amount of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient (attraction for water); explains why divers can get the bends if they surface to quickly.
muscles of inhalation
sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, external intercostals, diaphragm
muscles of exhalation
internal intercostasl, external obliques, transverse abdominus; rectus abdominis
alveolar surface tension
a force that causes the alveoli to have the smallest possible diameter
alveolar surface tension during inhalation
surface tension must be overcomeso that the alveoli can expand
alveolar surface tension during exhalation
surface tension helps the alveoli to ‘snap back’ to their original size
surfactant
a substance that enables the surface tension to change and prevent the alveoli fromcollapsing (like a deflated balloon) during exhalation
eupnea
normal pattern of quiet breathing
apnea
temporary absence or cessation of breathin
dyspnea
diifuclt or labored respiration
tachypnea
rapid breathing
costal breathing
shallow breathing
diaphragmatic breathing
deep breathing
cartilaginous rings
are replaced with plates of cartilage in primary bronchi and disappear in the bronchioles
carina
internal ridge at the point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi
passive breathing
normal pattern of quiet breathing; no muscular contractions are involved
control of respiration
Respiratory center sends nerve impulses to respiratory muscles - located in reticular formation of brain stem
areas of respiratory center of brain
medullary rhythmicity area; pneumotaxic area; apneustic area
medullary rhythmicity area of brain
controls the basic rhythm of respiration within two areas: inspiratory - sets the basic rhythm of respiration proprioceptors in joints and muscles activate inspiratory center during exercise to bring in more oxygen; expiratory - activated during high levels of ventilation controls the muscles used during forced expiration
pneumotaxic area
coordinates transition between inspiration and expiration - nerve impulses shorten the duration of inhalation
apneustic area
“tells” inspiratory area to prolong inspiration and thereby ‘inhibit’ expiration
Carbon Dioxide Transport
3 ways: dissolved in blood plasma; combined with the globin partof the Hb molecule to form: carbaminohemoglobin (Hb-CO2); transported as part of bicarbonate (HCO3)
hypoxia
oxygen deficiency at tissue level;
anemic hypoxia
too little functioning hemoglobin; hemorrhage; anemia; carbon monoxide poisoning
ischemic hypoxia
too little O2 reaches tissues fast enough; heart failure and shock
histotoxic hypoxia
toxic agents prevent tissues the proper use of O2; cyanide poisoning