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166 Cards in this Set

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NAME
the Greeks believed that this was the seat of intelligence
the heart
NAME
this provides the transport system "hardware" that keeps blood continousuly circulating to fulfill this critical homeostatic need
the cardiovascular system
What is the size of the heart like?
about the size of fist
NAME
this is about the size of the fist
the heart
What is the mediastinum?
is the medival cavity of the thorax that encloses the heart
NAME
is the medival cavity of the thorax that encloses the heart
mediastinum
What is the apex of the heart?
is the part of the heart that points toward the left hip
NAME
this is part of the heart that points toward the left hip
apex
What is the base of the heart?
is the posterior surface that is directed toward the right shoulder
NAME
this is the posterior surface that is directed toward the right shoulder
the base of the heart
Where can you feel the apex contracting the chest wall as your heart beating?
if you place your finger btwn the fifth and sixith ribs just below the left nipple
NAME
you can hear this if you place your finger bwtn the fifth and sixith rib just below the left nipple
tha apex contracting the chest wall as your heart beats
What does the PMI stand for?
point of maximal intensity
What is the PMI?
is the location where you can hear the apex contracting the chest wall as the heart beats
NAME
this refers to the location where you can hear the apex contracting the chest wall as the heart beats
PMI
Where can you hear the PMI?
if you press you finger btwn the fifth and sixith ribs just below the left nipple
If you press your finger btwn the fifth and sixth ribs just below the left nipple-- this site is refered to as (1)
PMI
What is the pericardium?
is a double walled sac that encloses the heart
NAME
is a double walled sac that encloses the heart
pericardium
What are the (2) parts of the pericardium?
(1)serous pericardium (2)fibrous pericardium
What is fibrous pericardium?
is the deep loosely fitting superficial part of the sac
NAME
is the deep loosely fitting superficial part of the sac
fibrous pericardium
What are the (3) functions of the fibrous pericardium ?
(1)protectes the heart (2)anchors it to the surrounding structures (3)prevents overfilling of the heart w blood
NAME
its functions include protecting the heart, anchors it to the surrounding structures, and prevents overfilling the heart w blood
fibrous pericardium
What is the serous pericardium?
is a thin slippery, two layer serous membrane
NAME
this is a thin slippery, two layer serous membrane
serous pericardium
What are the (2)layers of the serous pericardium?
(1)parietal layer (2)visceral layer
NAME
this has two layers: parietal layer and the visceral layer
the serous pericardium
What are the (2) layers of the serous membrane?
(1)parietal layer (2)visceral layer
NAME
this has two layers: parietal layer and visceral layer
serous membrane
What is the parietal layer?
lines the internal surface of fibrous pericardium
NAME
this layer lines the interna surfaces of fibrous pericardium
the parietal layer
What is the visceral layer?
is the internal part of the heart wall
NAME
this is the internal parto the heart wall
visceral layer
The visceral layer is also called the (1)
epicardium
(1)is also called the epicardium
visceral layer
What is pericardiits/
is the inflammation of the pericardium, hinders production of the serous fluid and roughens the serous membrane surfaces
NAME
this is the inflammation of the pericadrium that hinders the production of serous fluid and roughnes the serous membrane surfaces
pericarditis
What is a key characterist of pericarditis?
the beating of the heart as it rubs against its pericaridal sac
NAME
this is characterizted by the beating of the heart as it rubs against its pericaridal sac
pericaridits
What does cardiac tamponade mean?
heart plug
NAME
this literally means heart plug
cardiac tamponade
What is cardiac tamponade?
is a condition in which the heart is compressed by fluid
NAME
is a conidtion in which the heart is compresed by fluid
cardiac tamponade
What are the (3) layers of the heart wall?
(1)epicardium (2)myocardium (3)endocardium
What is the first layer of the heart wall?
epicardium
NAME
this is the first layer of the heart and is also visceral layer of the serous pericardium
epicardium
What is the middle layer of the heart?
myocardium
What is the myocardium?
is the middle layer of the heart which is composed of mainly cardiac muscle and forms the bulk of the heart
NAME
this is the middle layer of the heart which is composed of mainly cardiac muscle and forms the bulk of the heart
myocardium
What is the layer of the heart wall that contracts?
the myocardium
NAME
this is the layer of the heart wall that contracts
myocardium
The myocardium is the layer of the heart wall that (1)
contracts
What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart?
is a dense network of fibers that reinforces the myocardium internally and anchors the cardiac muscle fibers
NAME
this is a dense network of fibers that reinforces the mycardium internally and anchors the cardiac muscle fibers
fibrous skeletlon of the heart
NAME
this layer of the heart has crisscrossing connective tissue fibers that arranged in spiral or cicurcular bundles that form the dense network of the fibrous skeleton of the heart
myocardium
What is speacil about the connective tissues' fibers arrangement in the myocardium?
they are arranged in spiral or cicurcular bundles that form the dense network of the fibrous skeleton of the heart
What is the third layer of the heart wall?
endocardium
What is the endocardium?
is a glistening white sheet of endothelium resting on a thing connective tissue layer
NAME
this is a glistening white sheet of endothelium resting on a thing of connective tissue layer
endocardium
What are the (4) chambers of the heart?
(1)two superior atria (2)two inferior venticles
NAME
this has four chambers:two superior atria and two inferior venticles
heart
What is the intaratrial septum?
divides the heart longitudinally and separates the atria
NAME
this divides the heart longitudinally and separates the atria
intaratrial septum
What is the interventricular septum?
separates the ventricles
NAME
this separates the ventricles
interventricular septum
What is the fossa ovalis?
is a shallow depression that marks the spot where an opening called the forament ovale existed in the fetal heart
NAME
this is a shallow depression that marks the spot where an opening called the foramen ovale existed in the fetal heart
fossa ovalis
together (1)make most of the volume of the heart
ventricles
What are trabeculae carnae?
are irregular ridges that mark the internal walls of the ventricular chambers
NAME
these are irregular ridges that mark the internal walls of the ventricular chambers
trabeculae carnae
What is the largest artery in the body?
aorta
NAME
this is the largest artery in the body
aorta
The aorta is the (1)in the body
largest
The heart is actually a (1)
two side by side pumps
NAME
this is actually a two side by side pumps
the heart
What is the pulmonary circuit?
are the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs and serves gas exchange
NAME
these are the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs and serve gas exchange
the pulmonary circuit
What is the systemic circuit?
are the blood vessels that carry the functional blood supply to and from all body tissues
NAME
are the blood vessels that carry the functional blood supply to and from all body tissues
systemic circuit
The right side of the heart is the(1)
pulmonary circuit pump
(1)side of the heart is the pulmonary circuit pump
right
Which side of the heart if the pulmonary circuit pump?
right
Blood returning from the body is (1)
oxygen poor and carbon dioxide-rich
Blood returning from the (1) is oxygen poor and carbon dioxide rich
body
How does the load of work differ in the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit pump?
(1)the pulmonary circuit is a short low pressure circulation (2) the systemic circuit pump-takes a long pathway through the entire body and encounters about 5 times as much friction or resistnace to blood flow
NAME
this circuit has a short low pressure circulation
pulmonary circuit
NAME
this circuit take a long pathway through the entire body and encounters 5 times as much friction or resistnace to blood flow as the other circuit
the systemic circuit pump
Blood returning from the heart is (1)
oygen rich and carbon dioxide poor
Blood returning from the (1)is oxygen rich and carbon dioxide poor
heart
The left side of the heart is the (1)
systemic circuit pump
The (1)side of the heart is the systemic circuit pump
left
What side of the heart is the systemic circuit pump?
left
Where does gas exchange ocur?
in the capillary beds
NAME
this is where gas exchange ocurs in as blood is transported throughout the body
the capillary beds
T or F
the right ventricular can generate much more pressure and is far more powerful pump
false left ventricule
Why can the left ventricle generate muc more pressure than the right ventricule and is far more powerful?
bc the the systemic circuit pump-takes a long pathway through the entire body and encounters about 5 times as much friction or resistnace to blood flow
T or F
blood itself provides little nourishment to heart tissue
true
What is the shortest circulation in the body?
the coronary circulation
NAME
this is the shortest circulation in the body
coronary circulation
What is the coronary cicrulation?
is the functional blood supply of the heart
NAME
this is the functional blood supply of the heart
coronary circulation
The (1)deliver blood when the heart is relaxed but are fairly ineffective when the ventricles are contracting
the coronary arteries
Why are vessels failr ineffective at delivering blood to the heart when the ventriclies are contracting? (2)
(1)bc the vessels are compressed by the contracting myocardium (2)thier entrances are partly blocked by the flaps of the open aortic semilunar valve
What is angina pectoris?
is thoracic pain caused by a fleeting defieciency in the blood delivery to the myocardium
NAME
this is thoaracic pain caused by a fleeting defieciency in the blood delivery to the myocardium
Angina pectoris
What does MI stand for?
myocardial infaraction
What is MI?
refers to a heart attack or coronary
NAME
this refers to a heart attack or coronary
MI
T or F
blood flows through the heart in one direction
true
Blood flows through the heart in one direction, what is that direction?
from the atria to ventricles and out of the great arteries leaving the superior aspect of the heart
What does AV valve stand for?
atrioventricular valve
What does the AV valves do?
prevents backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting
NAME
this valve prevents backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting
AV valves
What are the two AV valves?
(1)Tricuspid valve (2)bisuspid valve
NAME
there are two of this:tricsupid valve and the bisuspid valve
AV valves
What is the tricuspid valve?
is the right AV valve and has three flexible cusps or flaps of endocrardium
NAME
this is the right AV valve and has three flexible cusps or flaps of endocardium
tricuspid valve
What is the bicuspid valve?
is the left AV valve w two flaps
NAME
this is the left AV valve w two flaps
bicuspid valve
the bicuspid valve is also called the (1)
mitral valve
(1)is also called the mitral valve
bicuspid valve
Why is the bicuspid valve also called the mitral valve?
bc of its rescembalance to the two sided bishop's hat
NAME
it rescembalance to the two sided bishop's hat
bicuspid valve
What is the chordae tendinae?
are tiny white collagen cords that are attached to the AV flap that anchor the cusps to the papillary muscles protruding from the ventricular walls
NAME
these are tiny white collagen cords that are attached to any AV flap that anchor the cusps to the papillay musclces protruding from the ventricular walls
chordae tendinae
What happens when the ventricules contract?
the intraventricular pressures rises forcing the blood superiorly against the blood superiorly
NAME
bc of this, the intraventricular pressure rises and forces the blood superioraly against the valve flaps
when the ventricles contract
What does SL stand for ?
semilunar valves
What are the (2) SL valves?
(1)aortic valve (2)pulmonary valves
NAME
this has two valves:aortic and pulmonary valves
SL valves
NAME
these guard the bases of the large arteries issuing from the ventricles and prevent backflow into assocaited ventricles
aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves
What do the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves do?
guard the bases of the large arteries issuing from the ventricules (2)prevent the backflow into assocated ventricles
When do the SL vales open?
as the blood rushed by them
When do SL valves close?
when the ventricles relax, and the blood flows backward toward the heart, it fills the cusps, and closes the valves
T or F
the heart can function w leaky valves as long as the impairments are not to great
true
What is a incompetent valve?
this refers to when the heart is forced to repump the same blood over and over bc the valve does not close properly and blood backflows
NAME
this refers to when the heart is forced to repump the same blood over and over bc the valve does not close properly and blood backflows
incompetent valve
What is valvular stenosis?
is when the valve flaps of the heart become stiff following endocarditis or calcium salt depostist and constricts the opening
NAME
is when the valve flaps of the heart become stiff following endocarditis or calcium salt deposits and constrict the opening
valvular stenosis
NAME
this like skeletal muscle, is striated and it contracts by sliding filament mechanism
cardiac muscles
What are cardiac cells like?
are short fat branched and interconnected
NAME
these are short fat branched and interconnected
cardiac cells
The fibrous skeleton acts both as (1) and (2)
tendon and instertion-giving the cardiac cells something to pull or exert thier force against
NAME
this can act as both a tendon and instertion- giving the cardiac cells something to pull or exert thier force against
fibrous skeleton
What are intercalted discs?
are dark-staining junctions that contain anchoring desmosomes and gap junctions
NAME
these are dark-staining junctions that contain anchoring desmosomes and gap junctions
intercalted discs
What are desmosomes in intercalted disc ?
they prevent adjacent cells from separating during contraction
NAME
they prevent adjacent cels from separating during contraction
desmosomes
What are gap junctions in intercalated discs?
allows ion to pass from cell to cell---transporting a depolarizing current across the entire the heart
NAME
these allows ions to pass from cell to cell---transporting a depolarizing current across the entire heart
gap junctions in intercalated discs
The entire myocardium behaves as (1)
functional synctium
the entire (1)behaves as a functional synctium
myocardium
Why is the entire myocardium behaves as a functional synctium?
bc the cardaic cells are electriaclly coupled
Bc the cardiac cells are electrically coupled, (1)
the entire myocardium behaves as a functional synctium
T or F
traids are seen in the cardiac muscle fibers
false
is there traids in the cardiac muscle fibers?
no
What are some fundamental differences btwn the cardaic muscle and the skeletal muscles?
(1)means of stimulation (2)organ versus motor unit contraction (3)length of absolute refractory period
NAME
these differ by means of stimulation, organ versus motor unt contraction, and length of absolute refractory period
cardaic vs skeletal muscles
How does the cardaic and skeletal muscles differ according to means of stimulation?
(1)each skeletal muscle fiber must be stimulated to contract by a nerve ending (2)while some cardaic muscle cells are self-exictable and can initiate thier own depolarization
What is automaticity?
refers to how some cardaic muscle cells are self-exictable and can initiate thier own depolarization
NAME
this refers to how some cardaic muscle cells are self-exictable and can initiate thier own depolarization
automaticity
How do cardaic and skeletal muscles differ according to organ vs motor unit contraction?
(1)in skeletal muscles, all cells of a given motor unit are stimulated and contract at the same time (2)in cardiac muscle, the heart either contracts as a unit or doesnt contract at all
How do cardaic and skeletal muscles differ according to length of absolute refractory period?
(1)in cardaic muscles, the absolute refractory period channels are still open or closed as nearly as long as the contractions (2)in skeletal muscle fibers,the refractory period is much shorter
Which has a longer refractory period--skeletal or cardiac muscle fibers?
cardaic
Why do cardaic muscle fibers so long?
bc the long cardaic refractory period normally prevents tetanic contractions, which would sttop the heart's pumping actions