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16 Cards in this Set

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Agriculture theory
theory suggests the spread of Proto-Indo-European language occurred because of agricultural innovation
Amerind
the oldest, largest, and most widely distributed family (superfamily), which is spread from the shores of Hudson Bay to the coast of Tierra del Fuego
Austronesian
an ancestral language gave rise to the Austro-Tai family of languages, and out of this family arose Austronesian
Conquest theory
the Proto-Indo-European homeland source lay somewhere north of the Black Sea; it is believed these peoples spread westward, overpowered inhabitants and began the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues
Deep reconstruction
if it is possible to deduce a large part of the vocabulary of an extinct language, it may be feasible to go even further and re-create the language that preceded it
Eskimo-Aleut
family of languages, who are still concentrated along Artic and near-Artic shores
Fijian
a discrete Malayo-Polynesian offshoot
Language convergence
language convergence is a type of contact-induced change whereby languages of equal social prestige with many bilingual speakers mutually borrow morphological and syntactic features, making their typology more similar
Language divergence
differentiation over time and space
Language replacement
languages of traditional, numerically smaller, and technologically less advanced peoples have been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of invaders
Malayo-Polynesian
when Austronesian speakers managed to reach the Philippines, the movement resulted in the division of Austronesian into two dialects that later developed into major subfamilies, one of these, Malayo-Polynesian
Na-Dene
the second oldest, second largest, but much less widely diffused family
Nostratic
the core of a pre-Proto-Indo-European language
Polynesian
another derivative of the branch
(Proto) Indo-European language
the predecessor of Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, among other ancient languages
Sound shifts
the diversification of languages has long been charted through the analysis of sound shifts