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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
language
a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society
standard language
A language that is published, widely distributed and taught
dialects
Variants of a standard language along regional or ethnic lines
isogloss
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
mutual intelligibility
two people who can understand each other while speaking different languages or dialects
dialect chains
dialects distributed across space
language families
classifying languages together that have a shared but fairly distant origin
subfamilies
divisions within large families where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
sound shift
a slight change in a word across languages within a sub family
Proto-IndoEuropean
an ancestral Indo-European language that would give us the hearth of ancient Latin, Greek and Sanskrit
backward reconstruction
A technique to track 'sound shifts' and hardening of consonants "backward" toward the original language
Nostratic
ancestor of Proto-IndoEuropean
language divergence
new languages form where a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language breaks the language into dialects and then continued isolation divides the language into discrete languages
extinct language
a language without any native speakers
deep reconstruction
a technique where if it's possible to deduce a large part of the vocabulary of an extinct language, it may be feasible to recreate the language that preceded it
language convergence
if people with different languages have consistent spatial interaction this can occur. Collapsing two languages into one
Renfrew Hypothesis
claims from Anatolia diffused Europe's Indo-European languages; from the Western arc of fertile crescent came the languages of N.Africa and Asia from fertile crescent's arc ancient languages spread into present day S.Africa and S.W. Asia
conquest theory
Theory of how early Proto-Indo European speakers spread Westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European languages
dispersal hypothesis
hypothesis that holds that the that the Indo-European languages that arose from the Proto-Indo European were first carried eastward into S.W. Asia, next around Caspian Sea, and then across Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans
Romance languages
Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese and Romanian. Lie in the areas once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed
Germanic Language
English, German, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Reflect the expansions of people of Northern Europe to the West and South
Slavic Languages
Russian, Polish, Czech,Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbocroatian, and Bulgarian. Developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
Lingua franca
a language used among speakers of different languages for the purpose of trade and commerce
pidgin language
when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole language
a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
Monolingual Status
countries in which only one language is spoken, exists
Multilingual States
countries in which more than one language is in use
official language
the language selected to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and gov't
global language
a common language of trade and commerce around the world
place
uniqueness of location
toponyms
place names