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68 Cards in this Set

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How did the Italian Renaissance begin?
Renewed interest in Ancient Roman Literature and Life
What are the humanities?
The studies of grammar, rhetoric, history, and poetry in classical text
Who was the first humanist?
Francesco Petrarch
What is classical education?
The study of ancient writing
What were the cities in Italy where the Italian Renaissance began?
Florance, Rome, Venice, Milan, and Naples
What painter was sponsered by the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of France?
Titian
How did Humanist's feel about Christianity?
Felt uneasy about Christianity and their study of humanities
What famous leader can be considered a humanist?
Machievelli
What was Titian's most famous work?
The Assumption of the Virgin
What was Machievelli's philosophy?
Thought a leader must do whatever it takes to stay in power
Why was Machievelli different from other humanists?
He had no moral values
What did Giotto introduce to Italian Renaissance Art?
Realism
What did Italian Renaissance art stress?
Religion
Who is considered the renaissance man?
Leonardo Davinci
What was Davinci's most famous works?
Last Supper, Mona Lisa
What was Michelangelo's most famous painting?
The ceiling of the sistine chapel.
Who painting the School of Athens in the vatican?
Raphael
How did the Northern Renaissance come to be?
It was spread from Italy, printing press helped
What was the first successful book of movable type?
Gutenburg bible, made from Johan Gutenburg
What was the Scientific Revouloution?
When people began to question classical belief and did the experiments themselves
Who wrote Utopia?
Thomas More
Who wrote In Praise of Folly?
Erasmus
What did In Praise of Folly do?
It criticized the church in a humorous way.
What was a broadside?
An ad of some type with a picture and printed text (humerous)
Who did Martin Luther think had the religious authority?
The Bible
What did Copernicus do?
Proved Ptolemy's geocentric theory wrong
What were Sects?
Mew religious groups that came from Germany and Switzerland in 1520's 30's
What did Galileo do?
He proved Copernicus correct with a telescope, everyone could see he was right
What are indulgences?
Pardons for sin
Who sold the indulgences in Germany that was a motive for Luther for reform?
Johan Tetzel
How did Martin Luther protest against Tetzel?
By posting 95 theses on the Wittenburg chuch
What did the Book of the Courtier talk about?
How gentlemen and gentlewomen should act in a polite society
Who are protestants?
All followers of Luther and reformers
What was one of the provisions of the Peace of Augsberg?
German Rulers could pick the religion of his state
Who wrote the Courtier?
Baldassare Castiglione
Most Sects died out except which group?
Anabaptists
What is mysticism?
The practice believed in by monks and nuns that in solitude an individual soul can commune with god
How did the Medici's become the rulers of Florance, most glorious city in Europe?
They were wealthy bankers and then became the rulers
What was the most famous book of the Renaissance?
The Book of the Courtier
What did Pope Leo X do?
Declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him
What is Virtu?
The idea of being well rounded or perfect
What did Johann Gutenburg do?
He was the first European to use movable type to print books. He printed the Gutenberg Bible
What did Charles V do?
Made Luther go to the Diet of Worms to denounce his ideas
Who was Charles V?
The Holy Roman Emperor at the time of Luther
What is Absenteeism?
Being assigned a spot to rule over but never being there
What is simony?
The selling of church offices
What is Pluralism?
Holding more than one office of the church
What is justification by faith?
That people can achieve salvation as long as the have faith in god.
What is Nepotism?
Giving jobs to friends or relatives
How many sacraments does Luther think the church should have?
Only 2, baptism and eurcharist because this is all that the bible has
What was the Diet of Worms?
An imperial diet, a meeting of rulers of the empire, in the city of Worms.
Who protected Luther after the uproar of the Diet of Worms?
Frederick the Wise (Elector of Saxony)
What were the Peasant Revolts of 1520's?
After Luther had protested against Catholics, the Peasant's were inspired to revolt as well
What does "Whose Religion, His Religion" mean?
German State in the H.R.E can determine the religion
What the Peace of Augsberg for?
Charles V sent his army against Protestent princes in Germany
What book did John Calvin write that outlined his beliefs?
The Institutes of the Christian Relgion
What is predestination?
The belief that God already knows who is saved and who is damned
Where did John Calvin become powerful and what did he make the city into?
Geneva, into a theocracy
What were the "elect"?
Those who were predestined for salvation
What is a theocracy?
A government ruled by a clergy claiming God's authority
Who was Henry VIII?
King of England
Who was Henry VIII's wife and why did he want to divorce her?
Catherine of Aragon, because she had not produced a male heir
What was the Council of Trent?
Church leaders who defined the Catholic religious doctrine
Who established the Index of Prohibited Books?
Pope Paul IV
Who brought back the medieval inquisition?
Pope Paul III
Who founded the Jesuits?
Ignatius of Loyola
What book did Ignatius of Loyola write?
Spiritual Exercises
How did the Jesuits believe they would be saved?
Self-discipline and good deeds