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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bureaucracy with the most employees
post office
the most employees that come after the post office
defense department
Pendleton Act
established the civil service system where people are hired based on merit and not by patronage
Hatch Act
made it so that federal employees cannot participate in partisan activities
General Schedule
salary and pension rating for employees
Office of Personnel Management
office in charge of hiring for the federal government
Senior Executive Service
is about 9000 government managers that are the cream of the crop on the GS scale
independent regulatory agencies
regulate a part of the economy and make up most bureaucracy
structure of independent regulatory agencies
governed by small commissions
examples of independent regulatory agencies
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Federal Trade Commission (FTC)Federal Reserve Board (FRB)
independent executive agencies
created with a special function that do not regulate a part of the economy ex: NASA or National Science Foundation
government corporations
provide a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. ex: Post Office
implementation of bureaucracy
1. create agency
2. operational rules
3. coordinated resources and personnel
implementation obstacles or reasons for failure
-faulty program
-lack of clarity in law
-administrative routine too much creates rigidness and inability to adapt to situations
-administrative discretion too much can create a lack of structure
-fragmentation: responsibility spread throughout too many groups
responsibility of federal bureaucrats
to implement policy
standard operating procedures
pro-provides uniformity/personnel interchangable/creates essential routine
cons-red tape frustrating/obstacles to action
administrative discretion
allowing multiple actions to be taken on a given problem
pro-being adapt to new situation
con-controlling discretion/limits on discretion can create problems
street level bureaucrats
those who have constant contact with the public
ex: teachers
command-and-control policy
the government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed and punishes offenders
incentive system
giving rewards for meeting certain goals or doing something the government wants them to do
lifting restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which the government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer
Munn v. Illinois
1877 when the government held up government regulation for the first time
pros of government regulation
allows uniformity in product
creates standards in low products
cons of government regulation
raises prises
hurts america's competitive position abroad
doesn't always work well
How President controls bureaucracy
allocate $
change personnel
make new rules/orders
how congress controls bureaucracy
create programs
give funding
confirm appointments
iron triangles
between bureaucracy, congressional subommittees and interest groups

-allow for decentralization
issue networks
iron triangles surrounding specific issues
civil law
cases where a law isn't broken
criminal law
where a person is breaking the law and can be punished
standing to sue
requirement hat plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case
brings the charge against another
class action law suits
when one group files suit on behalf of others similarly situated
justiciable disputes
cases that can be settled by matters of law
original jurisdiction
the jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. these are the courts that determine the facts about a case.
appellate jurisdiction
the jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, on the legal issues involved.
constitution on the supreme court and lower courts
supreme court established and congress has the power to establish lower courts
federal district court
have original jurisdiction. jury panels preside
91 total
jurisdiciton in federal crimes, civil suits under federal law, and civil suits between citizens of different states, bankruptcy proceedings, review actions of fed agencies, maritime law cases, supervision of naturalizaiton of aliens
Circuit Court of Appeals
review all final decisions of district courts. they hear appeals to orders of many federal regulartory agencies. 12 circuits broken by region
federal magistrates
assistant judges that serve 8 years and are assigned to federal district courts
US marshalls
serve out orders given by the court
protect judical process
assigned to federal district courts
senatorial courtesy
if a senator from the president's party doesn't agree with a justice nomination everyone in the party will listen and agree w/ that person
success rate of presidential appts.
2 per term
factors affecting presdential appts
presidential popularity
if the guy is involved in scandal
judging experience
us attorneys
they handle cases brought against US and also are prosecutors
rule of four
when four judges want to hear a case then they have to hear it
decision making process for cases
placed on docket-->briefs submitted-->oral argument-->conference cases discussed and votes taken-->opinions drafter-->decision announcement
accepting cases process
appealed and discussed in committee
writs of certiorari
order to lower courts for information
per curiam decisions
deciding w/o any hearing
stare decisis
lets the previous decision stand and establishes a precident
judicial restraint
a philosophy that judges play a minimal policmaking role
judicial activism
judges make bold policymaking decisions even charting new constitutional ground
judicial review
the power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress and the president are in accord with the constitution
marbury v. madison
court case that asserted judicial review by the S.C.
Warren Court
most liberal
1.expanded crimanl defendant rights
mapp v. ohio
miranda v. arizona
gideon v. waingwright

2. civil rights and desegregation
brown v. board

3. voting rights and reappportionment
Burger Court
1. Narrowed defendant's rights w/o overturning warren
2. roe. v. wade
3. upholding affirmative action
Rehnquist Court
-chipped away at liberal decision in abortion, defendant's rights, affirmative action, not being a protector of civil rights
political questions
judges don't want to get involved with the disputes between the president and congress