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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Amendment 1
Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, religion, opinion
Amendment 2
Right to bear arms
Amendment 3
protection from quartering
Amendment 4
no unreasonable search/seizure
Amendment 5
no self incrimination, double jeproady; due process, indictment
Amendment 6
Right to counsel, quick trial, subpoenas, notice of accusation
Amendment 7
trial by jury
amendment 8
no excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment
Amendment 9
Unenumerated Right - constitution cannot be used to deny rights
Amendment 10
all rights not granted to federal gov't granted to states
Amendment 11
limits on lawsuits against states
Amendment 12
Revision on electoral college procedures
Amendment 13
abolished slavery
Amendment 14
HUGE. Due process, equal protection, and citizenship for former slaves. bill of rights applied to states
Amendment 15
black suffrage
Amendment 16
Federal income tax
Amendment 17
direct election of senators (used to be elected by state legislature)
Amendment 18
Prohibition begins
Amendment 19
Women's suffrage (1921)
Amendment 20
Presidential term beginning; emergency succession rules
Amendment 21
prohibition repealed
Amendment 22
two term limit for presidents
Amendment 23
Right to vote in DC
Amendment 24
Elimination of Poll taxes
Amendment 25
Presidential disability and succession
Amendment 26
Lowered voting age
Amendment 27
Congressional pay raises
Everson v. Board
Upheld new jersey policy of reimbursing parents for busing to catholic school
Abbington v. Schepp
Struck down law requiring bible readings
Engel v. Vitale
ruled school sanctioned prayer unconstitutional
Lemon v Kurtzman
established lemon test for upholding religious laws. struck down law to reimburse parochial schools
Lynch v. Donnelly
upheld law for gov't offices to celebrate christmas with nativity scenes as long as it included secular displays
Palko v. Connecticut
held that certain rights should be applied to states
Wallace v. Jaffree
Overturned law setting aside time for voluntary prayer
Edwards v. Aguillard
louisiana could not force schools teaching evolution to also teach creationism.
Westside v. Mergens
upheld equal access law; religious groups have equal access to public facilities
Lee v. Weisman
ruled against clergy led prayer at graduation
Everson v. Board
Upheld new jersey policy of reimbursing parents for busing to catholic school
Abbington v. Schepp
Struck down law requiring bible readings
Engel v. Vitale
ruled school sanctioned prayer unconstitutional
Lemon v Kurtzman
established lemon test for upholding religious laws. struck down law to reimburse parochial schools
Lynch v. Donnelly
upheld law for gov't offices to celebrate christmas with nativity scenes as long as it included secular displays
Palko v. Connecticut
held that certain rights should be applied to states
Wallace v. Jaffree
Overturned law setting aside time for voluntary prayer
Edwards v. Aguillard
louisiana could not force schools teaching evolution to also teach creationism.
Westside v. Mergens
upheld equal access law; religious groups have equal access to public facilities
Lee v. Weisman
ruled against clergy led prayer at graduation
Reynolds v. United States
Upheld law prohibiting polygamy even though it restricted religious freedom
Wisconsin v Yoder
court could not require amish parents to send kids to school past 8th grade - violated long standing beliefs
Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith
state could deny unemployment benefits to workers fired for using drugs religiously
Schenck v. U.S
court ruled that distributing anti draft flyers was a threat during wartime
Chaplinsky v. Hampshire
constitution did not protect "fighting words"
Tinker v. Demoines
Black armbands were protected symbolic speech
Brandenburg v. Ohio
inflammatory speech illegal only if there was immediate threat. Made clear and present danger test less restrictive.
Miller Test
1) appeal to indecent sexual desires
2)show outlawed sexual behavior explicitly
3) lack profound value
Reno v. ACLU
Ruled communications Decency act unconstitutional - was too vague in regulating internet speech
Near v. Minnesota
applied free press protections to states
Dejonge v. Oregon
applied free assembly rights to states
Griswold v. Connecticut
1, 3, 4, 9, 14 amendments created zones of privacy. Enhanced concept of enumerated rights.
Wolf v. Colorado
applied search/seizure protections to states
Mapp v. Ohio
created exlusionary rule to deter illegal policy behavior.
Terry v. Ohio
suspect searches are constitutional.
Nix v. William
created inevitably discovery rule --- evidence found w/o warrant can be used if it would've ben found inevitably.
U.S v. Leon
good faith exception = illegal evidence could be used if police officer thought they were acting legally.
Powell v. Alabama
due process guaranteed that defendents in death penalty cases get attorney
Betts v Brady
poor defendants in noncapital cases not given attorney. OVERTURNED
Gideon v. Wainright
overturned betts. poor defendants in state trials must be given attorneys
Escobedo v. Illinois
extended exclusionary rule to include illegal confessions in state court, also made escobedo rule -- suspect given attorney when investigation begins to focus on them
Furman v. Georgia
death penalty unconstitutional under state law b/c imposed arbitrarily
Greg v. Georgia
death penalty constitutional b/c imposed under circumstances
Civil Rights Act of 1964
prohibited discrimination in employment and public places, outlawed bias in federally funded programs, and created Equal Opportunity Employment Commission
Civil Rights Act of 1991
made it easier for job applicants and employees to bring suit against employers
Voting Rights Act of 1965
allowed federal registrars to register voters and outlawed literacy tests.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
part of great society. Required federal funding for schools in low income areas
federal budget process
- agency proposals
- executive branch/agencies make pack
- congress debates
- president passes
NAFTA= North American Free trrade Agreement.
Created to allow free movement of goods through canada, u.s, and Mexico by eliminating and lessening tariffs.
Virginia Plan
bicameral; popular representation; veto power; judges choosen by legislative branch
New Jersey Plan
Unicameral Legislature; equal representation; no veto;; judges appted for life by executive
Legislative checks over executive
- override president veto
- impeachment
- refuse to confirm appts/ratify treaties
- creates executive agencies/programs
- appropriates funds
Legislative checks over judiciary
- creates lower courts
- sets judge salaries
- refuse to confirm appts
- propose amendments to overrule court
- impeachment of judges
Executive checks over legislative
veto acts of congress
call special sessions
recommend legislation
executibe checks over judiciary
president appoints judges
grants reprieves/pardons to offenders
may refuse to enforce decisions
Article I
legislative branch
Article II
executive branch
Article III
judiciary
Art. IV
Intergovernmental relationships
Article V
Amendment process
Article VI
supremacy clause
Article VII
ratification process
Interstate Relations
Full faith and Credit clause
Privileges and Immunities Clause
Extradition
interstate compacts
Gibbons v, Ogden
court expanded definition of interstate commerce to give federal gov't more power
Independent regulatory Agencies
independent from executive. Regulate or police. (Securities and Exchange Comission, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Reserve Board)
Independent executive agencies
similar to departments but do not have a cabinet status. (NASA, Small business administration)
government corporations
created by congress, carry out business like activities, and charge for services. (Tennessee Valley Authority, National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK), USPS.
block grants
general grants that can be used for a variety of purposes within a broad category (education, healthcare) fewer strings attached; more freedom for stat
categorical grants
grants with specific purpose defined by law (sewage treatment, school lunches). May be for projects (awarded competitively) or formula grants (ex – Medicaid). States may be required to provide matching funds
grants in aid
money/resources provided by national gov't to state gov'ts to be used for specific projects. Earliest grants were for roads, canals, railroads.
Revenue Sharing
proposed under Johnson administration. Popular under nixon admin. “no strings attached” aid to states. Never more than 2% of revenues given. Eliminated under Reagan.
Mandates
requirements imposed by national government. Unfunded mandates require states to meet mandate at their own expense. (Ex – Americans with disabilities act)
public bill
legislative bill dealing with matters of public concern
private bill
bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters
simple resolution
an expression of opinion in either house to settle procedural matters in either body
concurrent resolution
an expression of opinion without force of law that requires of approval of both houses but not president
joint resolution
fformal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by congress and president -- used to PROPOSE amendments
executive order
president directs agency to carry out policy
executive agreement
approval with another head of state not requiring approval from senate.
trust funds
funds for government programs that are collected/spent outside regular budget - usually for entitlement? limits power of congress.
Chadha case
ruled legislative vetos unconstitutional.