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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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a way of organizing a country into 2 or more levels of government that have equal poewr over the people
Unitary System
all powers reside in central government
union between states (states have more power that federeal govnm)
Intergovernmental Relations
realtions between states, federals and locals; people paid by state govnm to go directly to Congress for their own reasons instead of waiting for the representatives (want more money,with less strings)
Elastic Language
Congress can make any laws the deem "necessary and proper"; that clause will stretch to meet any needs
Necessary and Proper Clause
Necessary and Proper Clause
Article 1-Congress can make all laws proper and necessary (elastic clause-> flexability is implied)
Supremacy Clause
Article 6-states 3 laws of the land: 1. constitution 2. laws of federal govnm are consisten within constitution 3. treaties
Chief Justice John Marshall
allows federal govnm to expand powers through Necessary and Proper caluse
states once had the power to render or declare legally void or inoperative
Dual Federalism
federal govnm and state govnm are co-equal; each soverign
Commerce Clause
Congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce (state to state)
Concurrent Power
powers held between states and federal govnm (share certain taxes)
An example of concurrent powers is taxes
Expressed/Enumerated Powers
listed powers in Constitution
Implied Powers
Powers that aren't laid out specifically
Full Faith and Credit
one's privleges in one state and guaranteed in another
if one committs a crime in a state and flees to another, the state in which the crime was committed could go and get the criminal and have them tried
Privileges and Immunities
citizens in one state get privilegs and immunities in another
Interstate Commerce
state to state commerce
Intrastate commerce
in state commerce
Interstate Compact
the agreement among states about their economic issues
Laboratories of Democracy
ability that states cand do whatever they want (can "test" out something new); benefits the entire nations (states can learn off each other)
Matching Funds
if federal govnm is paying for a certain program, then states must fund the rest (ex. for every $1 the states pay, the federal govnm will pay $3)
New Deal
was the most centralizing period of federalism; the national govnm's greater flexibilty in raising revenues following the adoption of the 16th amendment let to revenue sharing with a pattern of federalism that continues today
Cooperative Fedearlism
asserts that the national govnm is Supreme over the states
New Federalism
relationship of states and federal aid; a plan announced in 1969 to turn over the control of some federal programs to state and local govnms and institute block grants, revenue sharing, etc.
Fiscal Federalism
federalism that deals with money; federal legislation to reconstruct the funding mechanism of domestic programs in areas such as health care, welfare, and training
Land-Grant Colleges
US was giving out land grants before the constitution
Michigan State University was built of land grants
Block Grant
given for very broad program (states prefer this type of grant)
states prefer this type of grant
Categorical Grant
can be used in one of many categories; main source of grants (This grant is used most often)
This grant is used most often
Formula Grant
grants distributed through the formula (for example more people =more money)
Project Grants
grants awarded based on competitive applications (schools and universities will apply for this all the time!)
schools and universities will apply for this all the time!
federal grant
Condition of Aid
the strings that the fed govnm adds onto a deal (ex. states can have more money, if they do certain things)
Distributional Formula
written in federal laws; takes in account the county and city (housing, population, income; a slight change in formula can shift millions of dollars to another area