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127 Cards in this Set

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The CNS is compresed of the...
Brain and Spinal cord
Between the brain and spinal cord, which one is more complex and responds to stimuli with greater versatilit?
The brain
What are 2 reasons why the brain is so complex and versatile?
1) Number of neurons and neuronal pools.
2) Complexity of interconnetions between neurons and neuronal pools.
In the CNS, adapting to environment changes requires what?
Multipel processing
The multiple processing required by the CNS to adapt to environment changes creates a _____ between stimulus and response
Delay
_____ allows us to respond immediatly giving the brain time to decided what do do next.
Spinal Reflexes
Brain size can vary in size but size of brain is the main determinace of intelligence. True or flase. If, flase explain.
False, brain size doesn't determine intelligence.
An adults brain weights between ___ & ____gm.
1450 & 1600
What is the volume of an adult brain?
2100ml
Brain growth is restricted by what?
membranous skull
The two main flexures do what?
bend the brain toward the brain stem.
Brain growth constriction also results in _______.
convolutions
At 5 weeks what 2 areas of a fetus' developing brain are the main 2 flexures?
Midbrain & Cervical
What are the 4 regions of the brain?
1)Cerebrum
2)Diencephalon
3)Brainstem
4)Cerebellum
What are the 3 functions of the Cerebrum?
1)conscious, intellectual processes
2)Memory storage
3)Movement of skeletal muscles (both conscious & unconsious)
What are the 2 areas of the brain in the Diencephalon region?
1)Thalamus
2)Hypothalamus
What is the relaying and processing center for sensory information?
Thalamus
What are the 3 funtions of the Hypothalmus?
1)controls emotion
2)autonomic funtion
3)hormone production
What are the 3 strutures that make up the brain stem?
1)mesencephalon
2)pons
3)medulla oblongata
What are the 3 funtions of the mesencephalon?
1)processing visual and auditory info.
2)generating reflex somatic motor response
3)maintains consiciousness.
What are of the brain tells the brain to stay awake?
mesencephalon
What are the 2 funtions of the Pons?
1)Relays sensory info to the cerebellum and thalmus
2)subconsious somatic and visceral motor centers.
The Pons relays sensory info to what 2 areas of the brain?
1)cerebellum
2)thalmus
The pons is in controll of the subconsious _____ and ____ motor centers.
somatic and visceral
What are the 2 funtions of the medulla oblongata?
1)Relays sensory info to the thalmus and other parts of the brainstem
2)Autonomic centers for regulation of visceral funtion.
What are the 3 areas of Visceral funtion?
1)cardiovascular
2)respiratory
3)digestive
What are the 2 funtions of th cereellum?
1)Coordinats complex somatic motor patters
2)Adjust output of other somatic motor centers in the brain and spinal cord.
Ventricles are continuous with...
the central cavity of the spinal cord
Ventricles are fluid-filled; what is the name of the fluid?
cerebrospinal fluid
The lining of the ventricals is called ____,because they are lined by ______cells.
ependyma, ependymal
_____ connect ventricles to the fluid-filled space that surrounds the brain.
Apratures
What is the name of the fluid filled space that surrounds the brain?
subarachnoid space
What are the 3 venricles?
1)lateral
2)third
3)fourth
what are the 2 apertures?
1)lateral
2)median
The cerebal hemispheres are the superior part of the brain, and it fits loosely in the skull to allow "wiggle room". True or flase, if flase explain?
False, fits snuggly in the skull
The brain is divided into 5 lobes, what are they?
1)Frontal
2)Parietal
3)Temporal
4)Occiptial
5)Isula
What is the cortex of the brain made of?
gray matter
What is a fissure?
A deep sulcus
The Cerebral cortex is the site of ...
conscious thought and intellectual funtion
The cerbral cortex accounts for what percent of the brain's total mass?
40%
How thick is the cerbral cortex?
2-4mm
The cerebral cortex is comprised of what 3 things?
1)neuron cell bodies
2)dendrites
3)unmyelinatd axons
What are the 3 regions of the cerebrum?
1)Cortex of gray matter
2)white matter
3)basal nuclei
A late 1800's anaomists mapped subtle variations in thickness and sturture, and created a structural map with areas that are called ___________.
Broadmann's areas
The cerebral cortex has 3 funtional areas, what are they?
1)Motor area
2)Sensory area
3)association area
What is the funtion of the motor area?
control voluntary motor funtion.
where is the motor area in th brain?
posterior part of the frontal lobe
What is the funtion of the sensory area?
provide conscious awareness of sensaton
what 3 areas make up the sensory area?
1)parietal lobe
2)temporal lobe
3)occipital lobe
What is th funtion of the association area?
act to integrate diverse info for purpusful action
_________ is term that means that each hemisphere is concerned with the sensory and motor funtions of the opposite side.
conralateral
The two hemispheres are not exactly equal in funtion, true of false, explain if false?
true
What 2 things make the hemispheres unequal in funtion?
1)laerization
2)specializaion
No funtional area works alone, true or false, explain if false?
true
Does conscious behavior involve the entire cortex?
Yes
What are the 8 areas of the the brain that are motor areas?
1)Primary motor area
2)premotor cortex
3)frontal eye field
4)Broca's area
5)prefrontal cortex
6)wernick's area
7)cinulate gyrus
8)parahippocampel gyrus
What are the 5 areas of the brain that are sensory areas?
1)Somatic senation area
2)taste area
3)vision area
4)hearing area
5)primary olfactory cortex
What 2 parts of the brain make up the somatic sensation area?
1)primary somatosensory cortex
2)somatosenory association area
What part of the brain makes up the taste area?
Gustatory cortex in insula
What 2 parts of the brain make up the vision area?
1)Primary vision cortex
2)viusual association area
What 2 parts of the brain make up the hearing area?
1)Audiotory association area
2)Primary audiotory cortex
What are the 2 funtions of Multimodal Association areas?
1)to direct extremely complex motor activities.
2)to perform complicated analytical funtions
What is the sturtural map of the Broadmann's areas called?
a motor and sensory homunculi
______ is the division of labor between hemispheres?
Lateralization
Lateralizaition of cortical functioning is needed because each hemispehre has unique abilites not shared by the other, true or false ,exlain if false?
True
An example of cerebral dominance is normally the left side is "dominate for language", true or false, explain if false?
True
Communication between hemispheres is perfect and almost instantaneous due to...
connecting fiber tracts as well as complete functional integration
What is the funtion of white matter?
To provide communication between hemispheres
What is white matter made of?
Mainly myelinated nerve fiber bundled into tracts
What are 3 fibers/tracts found in white matter?
1)commissures
2)association fibers
3)projecton fibers
what are commiussures?
A tract of nerve fibers passing from one side to the other of the spinal cord or brain
Eventhough its funtion is elusive due to overlap with the cerebrum, what are the 3 funtions of the Basal nuclei?
1)role in motor control
2)regulate attention and congnition
3)performing several activites at once (multi-tasking)
the basal nuclei plays a role in ____ control.
motor
What are the basal nuclei's 3 roles in motor control?
1)starting
2)stopping
3)intensity
The Diencephalon plays a vitial role in...
Intergrating conscious and unconscious sensory information and motor commands
The Diencephalon consists of what 3 areas of the brain?
1)thalamus
2)hypothalmus
3)epithalamus
That sturuture of the brain makes up the largest portion of the diencephalon?
Thalamus
The thalamus has ____ walls of the 3rd ventricle.
superolateral
The thalamus has many different nuclei that...
perform special funtions, receive afferent impulses from all senses ad parts of the body
The thalamus has funtional specialty, true or false, explain if false.
true
the ______is where info is sorted and edited here, then sent on the respective sensory cortex areas.
thalamus
Essetially all inputs ascending to cerebral cortex run through the ______.
thalamus
________ is the main visceral control center and essential to overall body homeostasis.
hypothalamus
What are the 7 homeostatic roles of the hypothalamus?
1)autonomic control centers
2)center of emotional response
3)body temp. regulaton
4)food intake regualtion
5)water intake/thirst regulaton
6)sleep-wake cycle regulation
7)control endocrince system funtion
The hypothalmus forms _______ walls of the 3rd ventricle.
inferolateral
What 2 strutures make up the epithalamus?
1)pineal gland
2)choroid plexus
What are the 2 roles of the pineal gland?
1)sleep-wake cycles
2)mood
the epithalamus forms the ____ of the 3rd ventricle.
roof
Where is the brain stem located?
between the cerebrum and spinal cord
Where is the midbrain located?
between the diencephalon and pons
What are the 3 components of the Midbrain?
1)Cerebral peduncles
2)Cerebral aqueduct
3)Nuclei
What is apart of the cerebral peduncles?
the pyramidal motor tracts
What 3 things make up the nuclei of the midbrain?
1)Corpora quadrigemina
2)substantia nigra
3)red nucleus
What 2 things make up the corpora quadriemina?
1)Superior coliculi
2)Inferior colliculi
The pons is mainly composed of...
conduction tracts that run in 2 directions
What is the sturcture inside the pons?
pontine nuclei
What are the 3 things that the medulla contains?
1)pyramids
2)olives
3)nuclei
What are pyramids in the medulla?
longitudinal ridges
What does decussation of pyramids mean?
they criss-cross, in an "X" fashion.
What part of the medulla contains the autonomic reflex center?
nuclei
The cerebellum provides ____ and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contracton,for_____, coordinated movements and_____.
timing, smoot,agility
The anatomy of the cerebellum is that the cerebellar hemishpheres are connected b a _____.
vermis
Folia and lobes are part of the cerebellum's anatomy, true of flase?
true
What 3 sturtures are listed as lobes of the cerebellum?
1)anterior
2)posterior
3)flocculonodular
In the cerebellum, all fibers entering and leaving are ____.
ipsilateral
The cerebellum has a role in congitive funtion, true or flase?
true
The brain is a funtional grouping rather than an antomical one, true or false?
true
The limbic system has a medial aspect of _____ and ____.
cereral hemishperes & dienchephalon
The limbic system is also known as the ______ or _______ brain.
emotional, affective
The limbic system integras and responds to a variety of ________ stimuli.
environmental
In the limbic system output is relayed though the ______.
Hypothalamus
If the limbic system has a malfuntion in the output to the hypothalamus it causes ______.
Pyschosomatic illness
In reticular formation, RAS has what 2 funtions?
1)maintain an alert, conscious state.
2)sere as a sensory filter, by processing incoming sensory stiumulation
What are the 2 funtions of "motor arm of recticular formation"?
1)Contral Skeletal Muscles during course limb movement
2)Regulate viseral motor funtion
Nervous tisse is tough and can't be injured by slight pressure, true or false?
False, Nervous tissue is delicate and can be injured b slight pressure.
To protect delicate neural tissue 4 structures are in place to prevent damage, what are they?
1)bone
2)membranes
3)fluid cushion
4)blood-brain barrier
What are the 4 funtions of Meninges?
1)cover and protect CNS
2)protect blood vessels and enclosevenous sinuses
3)contan CSF
4)Form partitions within the skull
What are the 3 CT membranes of the meninges?
1)dura mater
2)arachnoid mater
3)pia mater
In meninges, the subarachnoid space is between the ______ and _____.
arachnoid mater ad pia mater
Where is cerebrospinal fluid found?
in and around the brain and spinal cord
What are the 3 funtions of cerebrospinal fluid?
1)cushioning
2)support
3)provides nutrient rich environment
How does cerbrospinal fluid support the brain?
The brain floats in it, which reduces the weight that might otherwise collapse upon itself
The arachnoid villi is apart of cerebrospinal fluid, true or false?
true
The Choroid plexus is apart of the formation of CSF, true or false?
true
When the choroid plexus hands from the roof of ventricles it forms ___.
CSF (cerebrospianial fluid)
The Choroid plexus represents a cluster of ...
cpillariesenclossed by a layer of ependmal cells, supported b folds of pia mater with tight junctions.
How much cerebrospinal fluid does the choroid plexus make in adults, how much per day, and how ofter its the entire volume replace?
150ml, 500ml/day, replaced every 8hrs.