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106 Cards in this Set

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Chromosome
Strand of DNA associated with many proteins and thousands of genes
Fluid Mosaic Model
Sea of fluid lipids containing mosaic of proteins
Lipid Bilayer Composition?
-75% Phospholipid
-20% Cholesterol
-5% Glycolipid
Amphipathic
Having both polar and nonpolar ends
Each lipid has 2 _______
non polar fatty acid tails
Integral Proteins (3)
-Mostly Transmembrane proteins
-Tightly Embedded
-Amphipathic
Peripheral Proteins (2)
-Loosely Embedded
-Dwell at inner or outer surface
GlycoProteins (1)
Has Carbohydrate Groups attached at the ends
Carbohydrates of GlycoProteins (2)
-Called Oligosaccharides
-Has Glycocalyx which allows for cell recognition
Ion Channels
Pores that allow passing of specific Ion
Transporters
Moves Polar substances in or out of cell
Receptors
Recognition sites for specific molecules
Ligand
Specific molecule that binds to Receptor Protein
Linkers
Anchors proteins into other cells
Functions of GlycoProteins & Glycolipids
- Cell ID Marker to mark neighboring cells or dangerous cells

i.e ABO blood cell marker
Functions of Peripheral Proteins (3)
-Supports plasma Membrane
-Moves materials In & Out
-Changes cell shape
Membrane Fluidity Factors
- Number of Double Bonds in fatty acid
- Amount of Cholesterol
Effect of more double bonds in Fatty Acid Tails
More Fluid due to reduced packing
Effect of Cholesterol on Membrane Fluidity
Higher temp - Less Fluid
Lower temp - More Fluid
Membrane Permeable Molecules
O2
N2
CO2
Steroids
Vitamins AEDK
Small Alcohols
NH3
Non Membrane Permeable
K+
Na+
Cl-
H+
Glucose
Semi Membrane Permeable
Water & Urea
More Na+ & O2
Concentrated Outside the Cell
More K+ and CO2
Concentrated inside the cell
Charge of Inner membrane
Negative Charge of Membrane
Charge of Outer Membrane
Positive Charge of Membrane
Electrical Gradient
Electrical Difference across Plasma Membrane
Membrane Potential
Potential energy of Ions across Membrane
ElectroChemical Gradient
Membrane potential on one particular Ion
Factors on Speed of Passive Diffusion
-Surface Area
-Diffusion Distance
-Steepness of Concentration
-Temperature
Aquaporins
Membrane protein for Water
Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure of water on membrane of Higher side
Lysis
Bursting of cell when placed in Hypotonic Solution
Crenation
Shrinking of cell when placed in a Hypertonic Solution
Facilitated Diffusion
Solute Binds & is released on other side once Transporter changes shape
Transport Maximum
When Facilitated transport has reached saturation
Energy expense of Primary Active Transport
40% of cellular energy is used
Trigger of Sodium Potassium Pump
Phosphate group from ATP
Secondary Active transport
Uses Electrochemical Gradient to transport other substances
Symporters
Transports 2 substances to the same side

i.e Na+&Glucose Na+&Amino Acid
Antiporters
Transports 2 substances to opposite side

i.e Na+&H+ Na+&Ca2+
Endocytosis
Movement of Material into a cell via Vesicle
Exocytosis
Movement of Material out of cell via Vesicle
Clatherin
Protein used to fold vescicle
Phagocytosis
Form of endocytosis where cell engulfs a large solid particle
Phagocytes
Large Eater Cells

i.e MacroPhages & nutrophils
Pseudopods
Projections of Cellular membrane to form phagosome
Phagosome
A type of vesicle used formed by pseudopods
Pinocytosis
When drop of ECF enters and pinches off
Types of cells that rely on exocytosis (2)
- Secretory Cells releasing Digestive enzymes, mucus, hormones etc

- Nerve cells releasing neurotransmitters
Transcytosis
Endocytosis on one side then Exocytosis on the other side
Components of Cytoskeloton
Microfilament
Intermediate Filament
Micro Tubule
Makes Microfilament
Actin
Makes Micro Tubule
Tubulin
Centrosome
Creates mitotic Spindles during Mitosis
Cilia
Moves fluid along cell surface
Flagella
Moves the entire cell
Ribosome components and purpose
-RNA and ribosomal proteins
-Protein Synthesis
Rough ER
Studded with ribosomes for protein synthesis
Smooth ER (3)
-Lacks ribosomes
-Synthesizes fatty acids and steroids
-Detoxifies drugs
Golgi
-Consists of Cisternae
-modify, sort, and pack proteins for vesicles
Lysosome
Membrane enclosed organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Autophagy
Digestion of worn out organelles
Autolysis
Digestion of host cell
Peroxisome
Contains Oxidases that oxidize amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances
Proteasome
Contains Protease to break down faulty proteins
Mitochondria
Consists of outer membrane and inner membrane called cristae

Generates cellular ATP
Nucleoli
Porduces Ribosomes
Genome
Total genetic information carried in an organism
Nucleosome
Bead consisting of Double strand DNA wrapped twice around a Histone
Histone
Core of 8 proteins in a Nucleosome which helps to organize folding of DNA
Linker DNA
DNA between nucleosomes
Proteome
All of an organism's proteins
Base triplet
Genetic information of DNA and RNA in sets of 3s
Codon
Complementary sequence of a Base Triplet
Genetic Code
Set of rules that relate the base triplet sequence of DNA to corresponding codons
mRNA
Directs synthesis of Protein
rRna
Joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
tRNA
binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until its incorporated into a protein
Anticodon
Nucleotide triplet on other side of tRNA
RNA Polymerase
Catalyzes transcription
Promoter
Special nucleotide sequence located to show beginning of a gene.
Terminator
Special nucleotide sequence signaling end of gene
Introns
Regions within a gene that DOES NOT code for proteins
Exons
Regions within a gene that DOES code for proteins
pre-mRNA
the mRNA with both introns and exons
Small Nuclear ribonucleoproteins
Removes Introns from pre-mRNA, then passes mRNA through nuclear pore
Alternative Splicing of mRNA
Process where pre-mRNA is spliced in different ways to produce many different mRNAs
Somatic Cell
Any cell of the body besides a Germ cell
Homologous Chromosomes
The two chromosomes that make up a pair.
Interphase
Consists of G1, S and G2 phases
G1 Phase
Phase where cell duplicates organelles and centrosomes
S phase
Phase where Cell is committed to Replicate and DNA replication takes place
G2 Phase
Phase where proteins and enzymes are synthesized and centrosome replication is complete
G0 Phase
Cells that are in G1 for too long and are destined to never divide again
Prophase (2)
-Phase where Chromatin fibers condense and become visible.

-Mitotic spindle forms
Centromere
Constricted region that holds chromatid pairs together
Kinetochore
Protein complex outside of each centromere
Metaphase
Phase where Microtubules align centromeres at center called Metaphase Plate
Anaphase
Phase where Centromeres are pulled apart by Mitotic spindle and are now chromasomes
Telophase
Final stage of mitosis when mitotic spindle breaks up
Cytokinesis (2)
-Division of cell's cytoplasm and organells

-Formation of Cleavage Furrow
Aptosis
Genetically programmed death for a cell
Necrosis
Pathological type of cell death
Synapsis
Crossing over of Genes
Telomeres
DNA sequences found at tips of chromosomes, shortened after each division, causing aging and death