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81 Cards in this Set

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Name some differences between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church which split from the Christian church in 1054.
Roman Catholic Church - centered in Italy, Western, priests initially did not marry
Eastern Catholic Church - centered in Constantinople, Eastern, priests married
What were two pre-1450 accomplishments that helped shape the Western world?
Gunpowder and the printing press
What were the city-states of Italy ruled by during the 1400s?
Oligarchies - rule by the wealthy and powerful
Who defended Italian cities?
Condotierri - hired foreign mercenaries
Humanism, the idea of a Renaissance man, and virtu all broke from what and were inspired by what?
Broke from the Middle Ages and were inspired by classical figures
By what time were the Italian city-states taken over by foreign powers and by who?
Early 16th century by France and Spain
Who were two of the Renaissance artists that dissected cadavers to help understand the human body?
Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo
What was a favorite subject of Renaissance artist Raphael Sanzio
Madonnas
Who first created the Renaissance dome?
Filippo Brunelleschi
What was a technique that the Renaissance artists developed?
Perspective
What are frescoes and what are some examples from Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo?
Frescoes are paintings on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling - examples include The Last Supper and Sistene Chapel paintings?
What did Dante Alighieri write, when, and how did it fit into humanism?
Divine Comedy, 1300s, written in vernacular - Florentine Italian
What did Francesco Petrach do?
Wrote poetry in Italian, used the sonnet, known as first humanist
What did Giovanni Boccacio do?
He wrote the Decameron and continued on to write more secular stories
Who wrote The Courtier and The Price respectively and which intellectual movement were they from?
Baldassare Castiglioni and Niccolo Machiavelli (1513) from the Southern Renaissance
What was a major difference between the Southern and Northern Renaissance? What was a similarity?
The Southern Renaissance was more concerned in secular art and pre-Christian themes while the Northern Renaissance was more Christian and universities were opened in the 1400s. Trade and manufacturing was developed n both the Northern and Southern Renaissance and the Fugger family as well as the Medici family (N and S Renaissance respectively) served as merchants and bankers.
Where did the printing press first appear?
German states
Until when was Latin considered the scholarly language and in what part of Europe?
Late 16th century, North
Who wrote 'Utopia' and what was it about?
Thomas More - Utopia means 'nowhere' and he depicts an ideal society where precious metals are worthless and everyone was supposed to be dedicated to educating themselves and work
Who wrote the 'Praise of Folly' and in response to what?
Desiderius Erasmus from the Netherlands, a clergyman, wrote this to advocate the universal readings of the scriptures and make fun of the ideas of original sin and relics, focusing on Jesus' teachings as the truth
What were the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life?
In the Netherlands, a lay religious movement that practiced the 'Modern Devotion' - men and women lived separately with no vows and practiced service and humility helping the poor
What was some of the effects of the Bubonic Plague (Black Death)?
Peasants that were remaining demanded increased rights from Lords, more rebellions, Church image weakened, helped end feudal age
What were the Crusades?
Ventures by Christians to spread their religion through warfare in the East
Who were the Flemish masters?
Started with Van Eyck, portraits in oils before Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, from the Northern Renaissance, more realistic and non-religious
What was the Latin word for the quality that humanists looked for in the Renaissance man?
Virtu
What was the Inquisition?
Ferdinand and Isabella married in 1469 to unite Castille and Aragon and tried to keep Spain Catholic by persecuting heretics with this
What was Spain predominantly united by after the marriage of Ferdnand and Isabella?
Catholic Church
Pair the new monarchies with their countries.
Tudors - England
Valois - France
Habsburgs - Spain
What was the War of the Roses?
A civil war in the 1400s in England where two families fought over the crown - 1485 Henry VII gained power as the first Tudor
What was the Star Chamber and who created it?
Henry VII created this royal court without a jury for the rebellious nobility, breaking an English law that guaranteed trial by jury
What was the Holy Roman Empire?
Three hundred + German states ruled by the Church ('ecclesiastical') or 'princely states' ruled by an Austrian Habsburg in the Holy Roman Empire
Who had the most power during the 1500s?
Charles V - he was the Holy Roman Emperor with Austria, the Netherlands, Spain, and Spanish America under his contol
Who wrote the 95 theses and what was their basic argument?
Martin Luther posted these on the church in Wittenburg in 1517 to start the Reformation and criticize the way some of the Christian Church practices such as the selling of indulgences and put forth his own beliefs
Why were indulgences sold?
They were based on the 'Treasury of Merit' - a savings bank of good deeds - and were an attempt to gain forgiveness and get oneself or someone else out of purgatory
When and who said salvation was only possible through Church?
Pope in 1302
Name some corrupt practices of the Church.
Indulgences (paying off sins), absenteeism (hardly ever staying in the place where one had one's clerical position), pluralism (taking more than one priest and hiring someone else to do the not so wanted one), simony (buying or selling church offices), and nepotism (giving church offices to relatives)
What, when, and why was the Council of Worms and what was the outcome?
Luther was asked in Latin to take back what he said (like the 95 theses), 1521, because he was challenging the Catholic Church and idea of salvation and the result was that he said in German 'Here I stand. I can do no other.'
Who did Luther side with in the mid-1520 Peasant Revolt?
Luther sided with the peasants at first since he had been a peasant but then he faced blame for the revolt and so turned against them and told the Catholics to fight against them
Explain the difference between transubstantiation and consubstantiation.
Transubstantiation is the belief that the Eucharist bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ but consubstantiation is the belief that those foods only contain the 'presence' of Christ - the former was taken by Catholicism and the later by Lutheranism.
What was the Augsburg Confession and when was it?
1530, basic doctrines of Lutheranism
Who preached salvation by faith and strictly scripture alone and smashed Church decorations?
Huldrych Zwingli in Switzerland
What was John Calvin's background, beliefs (and how they differed from Lutheranism), and main publication?
French and trained in law, went to Switzerland to avoid being persecuted by religious authorities, wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion in Latin - international language, believed in everything Luther did except he added predestination, established congregational gov't in Geneva with strict rules, his beliefs were later known as Presbytarianism and spread by John Knox
What was the Calvinist attitude towards women?
Slightly higher status - believed girls should be educated and able to read scripture, still expected to be wives, mothers, and keepers of the household
William Tyndale - what did he do?
English reformer that went to see Luther in 1500s and translated New Testament into English and spread it via the Lollards (Christians following teachings of Wycliffe)
How did England become Protestant in the Tudor era?
Henry VIII established Church of England because he wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon who wasn't giving him a son and the pope was held in captivity by her relative Charles V so he wouldn't let him
What is a politique?
Someone who willingly compromises 'for the greater good' i.e. Elizabeth I
Before Henry defected from the Catholic Church, what was his status in the eyes of the pope and what did he write?
He was called the 'Defender of the Faith' because he wrote 'In Defense of the Seven Sacraments' (1520)
What was the Council of Trent, when did it meet, and what was its result?
Catholic response to the Reformation (Counter Reformation) - on and off 1545-1563 - reaffirmed most Catholic traditions, faith and all seven sacraments, transubstantiation, Vulgate Bible (Latin), clerical celibacy (not being able to marry), more regulation on indulgences and relics, priests trained, pluralism and simony controlled
Wars of religion - what, when, where?
1559-1648, French Civil Wars between Huguenots and French Catholics like Catherine de Medici, Dutch Revolt, Thirty Years War, English Civil War
What was the Edict of Nantes and who gave it?
Henry of Navarre gave the Edict of Nantes to give the Protestants rights but Catholicism was France's official religion
When was the War of the Three Henrys and what was the result?
1580s - King Henry of France defeated Henry of Guise, last Valois Henry King was killed by a Catholic monk, Huguenot Henry of Navarre became Bourbon ruler of France and converted to Catholicism to enter France
What was the cause of the Dutch Revolt? Describe the major events that occurred in Netherland during this time.
Calvinists in the Netherlands felt threatened by Philip II of Spain's Catholic control and were afraid of the inquisition, so they attacked Churches starting in 1566. Philip II had the Duke of Alba with 10,000 troops quell the rebellions and take property and taxes from the Dutch in a church court called the Council of Troubles. The Dutch considered the House of Orange the source of their true leadership, and then the compromising Duke of Parma replaced Alba in 1578 and got back 10 Southern Provinces but the 7 Northern ones called themselves the Union of Utrecht. Philip wanted to have Spanish ships attack England in the Spanish Armada in 1588 but the Armada was defeated and the Protestants felt that they were safe - in 1609 the Northern provinces were independent and Calvinist and the South remained with Spain until 1713.
Who were the first two unsuccessful Stuart English rulers that wanted to restore Catholicism after the Tudor dynasty?
James I and Charles I
Who was Oliver Cromwell and what did he do?
He was a Puritan (round head) that took over England with his 'New Model Army' or the Ironsides by defeating the cavaliers (royalists) and executing Charles I (beheading) in 1649, becoming dictator ruling during the Interregnum as the Lord Protector. However, after his death in 1658 his son was kicked out and replaced by Charles II from the Stuart dynasty through the Restoration, restoring the Church of England without religious toleration and passing the Test Act to keep everyone non-Anglican from military and civilian offices
Who was Prince Henry the Navigator?
During the mid-15th century, this Portuguese man helped lead the naval discovery of the Atlantic and the coast of Africa and established a school for navigation
What was the Palatinate and what was Bavaria?
Protestant and Catholic German states (respectively) that fought during the 30 years' war
What did Bohemia do to the Holy Roman Empire's emissaries in 1618 and what war did this action start?
Defenestration of Prague - Estates threw two emissaries out of a window into dung and this started the 30 year's war
What was the Edict of Restitution?
Catholic edict in 30 year's war (their high point) that returned church property taken by Protestants to the Catholic Church, taken back by the Holy Roman Emperor when Wallenstein was assassinated.
List the rulers before and during the English Civil War after Harry VIII.
Edward VI, Mary ('Bloody Mary'), Elizabeth I, James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II
Where did the Portuguese set up colonies during the beginning of their exploration in the mid-1400s?
Madiera and Azores in the Atlantic
What and when was Bartholomew Diaz' major accomplishment?
He reached the tip of Africa in 1488
Who went around the Cape of Good Hope and across the Indian Ocean in 1498?
Vasco de Gama
Who took Brazil for Portugal with the 1493 Treaty of Tordesillas upon its discovery in 1500?
Pedro Cabral
Who was the first European to cross the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and see the Pacific Ocean?
Vasco de Balboa
Where was Christopher Columbus from and who sponsored his trip to the 'Indies'?
Genoa, helped by Isabella b/c she wanted him to spread Christianity
Who were two big English sea dogs and what did they do? What other accomplishment was one of them known for?
John Hawkins and Francis Drake - stole from Spanish ships and Drake was the second European to travel around the world
What and when was the first English colony founded?
Jamestown 1607 (Plymouth was in 1620, England had tried to colonize North Carolina in the 1580s but failed)
Who were the voyagers that France used to make claims on North America?
Italian Verrazzano and French Jacques Cartier and Champlain
Who owned New Amsterdam?
Dutch (for 50 years), then English
Who had East India trading companies?
Dutch, French, English
What did Europe export to the Americas during colonization? Give three examples.
Possible answers: Wheat, sugarcane, cotton, horses, chickens, goats, sheep, pigs, cattle
What did the Americas export to Africa, Asia, and Europe? Give three examples.
Possible answers: Tobacco, avocados, peanuts, tomoatoes, potatoes, beans, maize, pepper, pineapples
Who primarily spread the African slave trade in the 1600s and what crops were most important during this period?
Portuguese, English and Dutch, sugar, tobacco, and cotton (later) were in high demand (Spanish tried to use Native Americans but were not as successful)
What are the Moriscos?
People of Moorish descent
What did merchants use the cottage industry for?
These were used to avoid guild restrictions
What is mercantilism?
Bullionist economy (wealth of country determined by gold and silver reserves) and goal is to be self-sufficient by getting national resources from colonies and manufacturing in homeland
What are the creoles?
Spaniards born in America
What was Jame I of England's approach on religion and what did he do?
He tried to convert England back into Catholicism and authorized an official English translation of scripture
Name two writers that propagated absolutism.
English Thomas Hobbes (The Leviathan, 1651) and French Jacques Bossuet (divine right)
What time was absolutism dominant?
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
When was the period of French Absolutism development and who really ruled while Louis XIV was still a child king?
1588-1643, 1643 Louis became king but his mother Anne of Austria had control and had Mazarin lead gov't, resisted by Fronde before Louis took over for himself in 1661