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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Christian humanists of the late 1400s urged reform on the pattern of the early Church primarily through (2 areas)
educational and social reform
people valued early Church because
it reprenseted a golden age
first even to damage church's prestige
papal conflict with German emperor Frederick II in 13th century
second event to damage church's prestige
Babylonian Captivity
third event to damage church's prestige
Great Schism
in the 14th and 15th centuries, leaders of Conciliar movement called for reform in
head and memebers
condemned absurd superstitions of clergy and excessive rituals of monks
Erasmus' Praise of Folly
criticized corrupt church
Chaucer and Boccaccio
in early 16th century, critics concentrated attacks on 3 disorders:
clerical immorality, ignorance, and pluralism, with the related problem of absenteeism
people placed emphasis on
moral and administrative reform
bishops casually enforced regulations regarding education of priests, leading to (3 things)
A.standards for ordination shockingly low
B.Many barely literate priests
C.Priests throughout Europe not as educated as educated laity
95 Theses criticized two things:
indulgences and papal wealth
were established by prosperous burghers in many late medieval towns because of irregular and poor quality sermons
it expresses the spirituality of the Brethren of the Common Life. It urges Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection in a simple way of life. It also stresses the centrality of the Scriptures in spiritual life.
The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis
essay in which Luther said that unless princes destroyed papal power in Germany, reform was impossible. He urged the princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth and to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons, and clerical celibacy. He told them that it was their public duty to bring about the moral reform of the church.
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
This embodied Calvin’s ideas, including a belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Founded by German Augustinian friar Martin Luther in the 16th century, it launched the Protestant Reformation in Germany, which ultimately proved a political disaster for the country
Religion that stressed that salvation came not through external observances and penances, but through a simple faith in Christ
often called the organizer of Protestantism
John Calvin
He did not ascribe free will to human beings because that would detract from the sovereignty of God. Men and women cannot actively work to achieve salvation; rather, God in his infinite wisdom decided at the beginning of time who would be saved or damned (predestination).
Were confident that God had saved them
They believed only a few would receive the inner light.
Established by John Knox
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
The church was strictly Calvinist in doctrine, adopted a simple and dignified service of worship, and laid great emphasis on preaching
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
These were a group of common lay people in Holland, beginning in the late 14th century, that lived in stark simplicity while carrying out the Gospel. They taught in local schools with the goal of preparing devout candidates for the priesthood and the monastic life. They sought to make religion a personal, inner experience through prayer, meditation, and careful study of the Scriptures.
Brethren of the Common Life
He dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. He set to work reforming the church, determined the structure the Scottish church after the model of Calvin’s Geneva.
John Knox
He persuaded the Scottish parliament to enact legislation ending papal authority. Mass was abolished and attendance to it forbidden under the penalty of death.
John Knox
He promised two German cardinals that if he was elected pope, he would summon a council, the Council of Trent
Pope Paul II
He appointed several learned and reform-minded men as cardinals and established the Inquisition in the papal states
Pope Paul II
He simplified the liturgy, invited Protestant theologians to England, and prepared the first Book of Common Prayer, which included, together with the Pslater, the order for all services of the Church of England.
Archbishop Cranmer
by Archbishop Albert to sell indulgences, he mounted an advertising blitz. He told people they could buy indulgences for deceased loved ones, and drew up a specific chart for the costs of forgiveness for particular sins.
John Tetzel
entered a monastery after promising God that he would become a friar if he lived through a terrible storm.
His conscious troubled him constantly for years until his professor directed him to the study of Saint Paul’s letters, and he came to the belief that salvation came through simple faith in Christ, not observances and penance.
She founded the Ursuline order of nuns, which attained enormous prestige for the education of women. She established the Ursuline order to combat heresy through Christian education. The first women’s religious order concentrating exclusively on teaching young girls, the Ursulines sought to re-Christianize society by training future wives and mothers.
Angela Merici
Resulted in a complete break with Rome
Henry VIII's divorce became enmeshed with political issues
Hnery VIII secured a dispensation from him eliminating all legal technicalities about Catherine’s previous union with his brother
Pope Julius II
would not grant annulment to Henry VIII
Pope Clement VII
dissolved the English monasteries because he wanted their wealth, ending 900 years of monastic life, dispersing the monks and nuns, and confiscating their lands.
Henry VII
He held his first diet (assembly of the Estates of the empire) at Worms, Germany in response to the uproar over Luther’s theses and the church’s condemnation of them. He summoned Luther to appear before it and ordered him to recant, but he refused.
Charles V
He inherited Spain from his mother, Joanna; and Habsburg lands in Austria, southern Germany, the Low Countries, and Franche-Comte from his father. His inheritance was an incredibly diverse collection of states and people, each governed in a different manner and held together only by the person of the emperor.
Charles V
He believed he was set on the path toward world monarchy and that it was his duty to maintain the political and religious unity of western Christendom. In this respect he was the last medieval emperor.
Charles V
Her brief reign witnessed a sharp move back to Catholicism. A devoutly Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon, she rescinded the Reformation legislation of her father’s reign and fully restored Roman Catholicism.
Mary Tudor
She married her cousin Philip of Spain, son of Charles V and persecuted several hundred Protestants, two acts that alienated her subjects.
Mary Tudor
a Spanish pope who publicly acknowledged his mistress and children.
Pope Alexander VI (Alexander Borgia)
It was called to reform the church andto secure reconciliation with the Protestants.
Council of Trent
involved Catholic efforts to convince or coerce dissidents or heretics to return to the church lest they corrupt the entire community of Catholic believers.
chose a middle course between Catholic and Puritan extremes. She insisted on dignity in church services and political order in the land. She did not care what people thought as long as they kept quiet about it.
Elizabeth (Elizabethan Settlement)
the Act declared the king to be the supreme sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy, thus establishing the Crown as the highest legal authority in the land.
Act in Restraint of Appeals
recognized Lutheranism. Each prince was permitted to determine the religion of his territory. Most of Northern and Central Germany became Lutheran, while the South remained Roman Catholic. There was no freedom of religion, however. Princes or town council established state churches to which all subjects of the area had to belong. Dissidents, whether Lutheran or Catholic, had to leave. (ruler and act)
Charles V: Peace of Augsburg
council summoned by Pope Julius II to reform the church
Lateran Council
Luther excommunicated and declared an outlaw by him at Worms
Charles V
embodied basic theological tenets of Protestantism
Confession of Augsburg
stated that religious authority rests with Bible
believed the church consisted of entire community of Christian believers
believed all work was sacred and everyone should serve God in his own way
his ideas had a vast following among all social classes
his ideas attracted many preachers who became Protestant leaders
Luther did not support their revolt because he believed in obedience to civil authority; supportes them instead
peasants; nobles
peasants cited his theology as part of their demands for economic reforms
wanted to become Lutheran to get social freedom because Luther taught that Christians were freest of all men
this class paid for the land the church owned, but had no privileges
his idea to cast out Catholicism meant money for middle class
his greatest weapon was his mastery of language; words spread by advent of printing
2 men greatly influenced by Luther's writings
Zaingli and Calvin
democratized religion (everyone able to understand it)
Luther's publication of the German translation of the NT
enabled people to remember central points of Lutheran doctrine
catechisms and hymns
gave each of the deven electors virtual sovereignty
The Golden Bull of 1356
allowed German nobility to strengthen their territories and reduce the authority of the emperor
localism and chronic disorder
France supported Protestant German princes (fought Catholicism) in fight against Habsburg Empire because
it wanted Burgundy
ruled empire divided into 7 separate regions that governed themselves (no centralization)
seven electors
seven electors answered to
HRE Max of Habsburg
event gave unity to much of Europe
marriage of Maximilian I of Austria an Mary of Burgundy
committed to idea of Germany's religious and political unity - wanted everyone Catholic and wanted territory unified under HRE
Charles V
stirred nationalistic feelings in Germnay against wealthy Italian papacy
Protestant Reformation in Germany
Luther's appeal to patriotism earned him the support of German princes because
they used religion as a means of gaining more political independence and preventing the flow of German money to Rome
The Protestant movement was __ for Germany
a political disaster
advanced the cause of Protestantism and promoted the political fragmentation of Germany
H-V wars
ended H-V war
Peace of Augsburg
North half of Europe mostly __; South mostly __
Lutheran; Catholic
caused Geneva to become "a city that was a church" (a theocracy), in which the state was subordiante to the church
Calvin's central ideas, belief in omnipotence of God, insignificance of humanity, and predestination, expressed in
The Institutes of Christian religion
believed in predestination
monitored the private morals of its citizens
Genevan Consistory (Calvinist)
burned at the stake in Geneva for denying the Christian dogma o the Trinity and rejecting child baptism
Michael Servetus
said you could choose to accept or reject faith
said you could only reject faith if God chose it for you
their beliefs and practices were too radicale for their times, and they were bitterly persecuted by other Protestants and Catholics
Quakers, Baptists, and Congregationalists followed
stressed the idea of a direct relationship between the individual and God
English humanist who printed English translation of NT
William Tyndale
built Hampton's Court with Henry VIII's money
Thomas Wolsey
Henry VIII kicked Catholicism out of England because this pope refused to annul his marriage
Pope Clement VII
Clement VII refused Henry VIII's request because
he didn't want to admit papal error
Archbishop Cranmer engineered Henry VIII's divorce because
he wanted to be the 2nd-highest ranking official (under Henry) in England
The nationalization of the English church and a break with Rome as Henry VIII used Parliament to legalize the Reformation resulted from
Henry's divorce, etc.
bread and wine actually become body and blood
nationalization of the English church led to
changes in governmental administration, resulting in greater efficiency and economy
the economy benefitted from Henry VIII's confiscation of monasteries and dissolve of Catholicism because
he had the church's land and the nobles' money
hated Henry VIII because he left her and killed her mom
Mary Tudor
made England Catholic and killed Protestants
England shifted closer to Protestantism under him, Henry VI's heir
Edward VI
established Church of England
Henry VIII
brought Calvinism to Scotland from Geneva
John Knox
became national church of Scorland
Presbyterian church
most of these people defiantly remained Catholic during Protestant Reformation
Lutheran state churches resulted from religious reformation in these 3 nations
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
led the religious reformation in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
the monarchy
established Church of England
Henry VIII
brought Calvinism to Scotland from Geneva
John Knox
became national church of Scorland
Presbyterian church
most of these people defiantly remained Catholic during Protestant Reformation
Lutheran state churches resulted from religious reformation in these 3 nations
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
sought to stimulate new Catholic religious fervor
catholic reformation
started as a reaction to protestantism
took place because of financial strain, losing followers, and feeling of religious obligation
popes resisited calls for the formation of a general council because
it would limit their authority
called the Council of Trent
Pope Paul III
failed to reconcile with the Protestants (bring them back)
council of trent
international politics hindered its theological debates
council of trent
forbade sale of indulgences and outlawed pluralism and simony (paying for position in church)
Tridentine decrees (council of trent)
attempts made to curb clerical immorality and to encourage education
council of trent
obedience the foundation of this tradition
jesuit (society of jesus)
with schools, political influence, and missionary work, they brought many people into catholic fold
established by Pope Paul III, carried out Roman Inquisition
Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
created index of prohibited books
sacred congregation of the holy office
power to execute confined to papal territories
sacred congregation of the holy office