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21 Cards in this Set

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The Reformation (SOCIAL, RELIGIOUS, AND POLITICAL REFORM)
-growth of URBAN MIDDLE CLASS, w/o ties to church or rural nobility; provides audience for circulation of new ideas

-NATIONAL STATES EMERGED AND GREW

-rise of POPULAR RELIGION and CHRISTIAN MYSTICISM

-conflict between POWERFUL NEW MONARCHS and THE CHURCH
THE IMITATION OF CHRIST
-written by THOMAS A KEMPIS
-urged christians to follow example of christ rather than official dogma
CONCORDATS
-treaties with papacy to secure autonomy
simony
sale of church offices
nepotism
employment of relatives
dispensations
holder of church offices excused from following requirements of church law
john wycliffe and jan hus
-wycliffe (england) and hus (bohemia) turned to BIBLE AS ONLY LEGIT. SOURCE OF SPIRITUAL TRUTH
-later followed by CONCILLIAR MOVEMENT, which QUESTIONED PAPAL AUTHORITY
martin luther (works)
works:
-NINETY FIVE THESES: denied power of pope to secure salvation
-ON THE FREEDOM OF A CHRISTIAN MAN: faith alone gets you to heaven
-ADRESS TO THE CHRISTIAN NOBILITY OF THE GERMAN NATION: denies pope's authority on scriptures (WRITTEN IN GERMAN)
-AGAINST THE THEIVING AND MURDEROUS GANGS OF PEASANTS: luther's response to the peasant rebellion, said it was the responsibliity of subjects to obey their rulers, who were divinely chosen
Martin Luther
Laid foundation for a reformed chuch: sacrements- baptism and eucharist, German Mass; individual responsibility for salvation
Imperial Diet of Holy Roman Empire at Worms
Luther summoned by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to appear at Imperial Diet
Diet of Augsburg
Charles convened Diet of Augsburg, where he told the Lutherans that they must return to the Church.
They responded by forming SCHMALKDIC LEAGUE to protect themselves from Charles V. Joined w/ Henry II (France) & forced Charles to make peace. Charles abdicated.
Zwingli
priest and humanist scholar who lived in Zurich
John Calvin
-spearheaded radical form of protestantism
-wrote INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION
-organizer of prtestantism
-presided over consistitory of laymen and pastors, who established rules by which citizens were to live
anabaptists
-adult baptism
-radicals
-literal intp. of scriptures
-wanted sep. of church and state
-highly persecuted
Henry VIII
Thomas Cranmer (who was made ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY later) annulled marriage to anne boleyn>>henry was excommunicated>>henry started anglican church and broke w/ rome>> henry made no substantial changes in religious practice/doctrine: reason for popular consent in england
John Knox (Scotland)
-Wrote BOOK OF COMMON ORDER, which determined liturgy
-led scottish reformation
-had studied w/ john calvin
-established presbytarian church; named for "presbyters" (ministers)
What was the importance of the invention of the printing press
Helped spread onorthodox ideas (for exmaple, luther's pamphlets)
Modern Devotion Movement
Manifestation of popular rise of Christian Mysticism and Popular religion
-Brothers and Sisters of Common Life
Erasmus
Humanist who suggested translation of Bible into the Vernacular
Tetzel
sold indulgences for Pope Leo X, Luther's biggest rival
Main Belief of Lutheranism
the notion of 2 spheres: the kingdom of God and the kingdom of existence