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113 Cards in this Set

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Ferdinand Magellan
Portugese explorer.
Tried to find a sea passage to Asia through America. Passed through a strait at the southern tip of South America that is now named after him. Remembered as the first person to circumnavigate the globe. The king of Spain funded his expedition, which started in 1519.
Timeframe of "Old" Imperialism
1500-1800
Center of commercial activity during "Old" Imperialism
Atlantic seaboard
What was the major attempt for Catholic Europe to spread its control known as?
The Crusades
List the causes for Europeans to embark on voyages?
Tales of fantastic lands, economic motives, and religious zeal.
What is the "Travels of John Mandeville"?
A book written in the 14th century in which the author talked about lands filled with precious stones and gold. One of many books that fueled European exploration.
Who are the Polos?
Family from Venice. Niccolo, Maffeo, and Niccolo's son Marco journeyed to the court of the great Mongol ruler, Khubilai Khan in 1271.
When did Khubilai Khan rule?
1259-1294
Author of "Travels"
Marco Polo. Proved to be the most informative description of Asia among European travelers.
Define direct access.
Merchants, adventurers, and government officials had high hopes of finding precious metals and new areas of trade, especially direct access to the spices of the East.
Before direct access, how did Europeans get Asian goods?
Arab intermediaries served as middle men, but were outrageously expensive.
Describe the religious motives behind European exploration.
Christianity was a missionary religion, and the Catholic Europeans thought it was their duty to spread the light of God to all cultures.
Define Eurocentrism.
The belief that Europeans were superior to all other cultures. Therefore, it was their duty to spread their ways of life to others.
Define Sinocentrism.
The belief that the Chinese culture was superior to all others. This caused the Chinese to avoid contact with other countries, believing that this would sully their superiority.
How was the expansion of Europe connected to the political changes being made?
The expansion of Europe was connected to the growth of centralized monarchies ("new" monarchies) during the Renaissance.
Change in monarchies...
Define cartography.
The art and science of making maps.
Describe "Geography"
Ptolemy's map, published in 1477, was considered the most accurate map of the time. Showed the world with only 3 landmasses- Europe, Asia, and Africa- and 2 oceans. It drastically underestimated the circumfrence of the Earth, which led explorers like Columbus to believe that it was feasible to sail west from Europe and reach Asia.
It's a map...
List two technological innovations that Europeans added to their ships.
Axial rudder (imported from China). Lateen (triangular) sails with a square rig.
What were the improved European ships known as?
A caravel.
List two tools that explorers used on their journeys.
The compass and the astrolabe (which measures latitude)
Who took the lead in European expansion? Why?
Portugal took the lead in the European age of expansion when it began to explore the coast of Africa under Prince Henry the Navigator.
Who was Prince Henry, and why is he significant?
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) was Portuguese. In 1419, he founded a school for navigators.
What is the Gold Coast?
In 1471, the Portuguese discovered a new source of gold along the southern coast of the hump of West Africa.
Who is Bartholemeu Dias?
Portuguese explorer. In 1488, Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Who is Vasco da Gama?
Portugese explorer (1460-1524). Around 1498, he rounded the Cape of Good Hope and stopped at several ports controlled by Muslim merchants. Filled the holds of his ship with ginger and cinnamon; very profitable.
Who is Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque?
Portuguese explorer. In 1511, he sailed into the harbor of Malacca on the Malay peninsula in order to control it.
Briefly summarize the Portuguese success in exploration and why?
Within a few years, the Portuguese managed to seize control of the spice trade from Muslim traders and had garnered substantial profits for the Portuguese monarchy. Their success was a matter of guns and seamanship. They by no means had a monopoly on the use of firearms and explosives, but their effective use of naval technology gave them military superiority.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
Spanish explorer who felt that Asia could be reached by sailing west instead of around Africa. He convinced Queen Isabella to finance his expeditions.
Name the three ships of Columbus' voyage.
Santa Maria, Nina, Pinta
Where did Columbus land?
Originally in the Bahamas. He later went on the explore Cuba and Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). 4 voyages overall- landed on all of the major islands of the Caribbean and Central America.
Who was John Cabot?
A state-sponsored Venetian explorer who traveled the New England coastline. Hired by King Henry VII of England.
Who was Pedro Cabral?
Portuguese sea captain who accidently discovered the continent of South America in 1500.
Who was Amerigo Vespucci?
A Florentine who accompanied several voyages and wrote a series of letters describing the geography of the New World. These letters led to the use of the name "America."
Who was Nunez de Balboa?
(1475-1519) Spanish explorer who led an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
What is the Treaty of Tordesillas?
(1494) Divided up the newly discovered world into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence. Most of South America went to the Spanish.
Describe the characteristics of the conquistadors?
Spanish. Hardy individuals motivated by a blend of glory, greed, and religious crusading zeal. Financed and outfitted privately, not by the government.
Who were the Mayans?
(~300 CE) Yucatan Peninsula- built one of the most sophisticated civilizations in the Americas. Mayan civilization began to decline around 800 CE.
Who were the Aztecs?
(~1100 CE) Valley of Mexico- established their capital at Tenochitlan (now Mexico City). Outstanding warriors, quickly gained control of most of Mexico.
What is La Noche Triste?
A night in 1520 in which local Aztecs revolted against Cortes. Many of the Spaniards were killed.
Who is Hernan Cortes?
(1485-1547) In 1519, he led a Spanish expedition to Veracruz. Marched on the city of Tenochtitlan. Received a friendly welcome from Montezuma (Aztec monarch). Took Montezuma hostage and pillaged the city. Also brought smallpox to the natives. Leveled the pyramids, temples, and palaces of the Aztec Empire. By 1550, the Spanish had gained control of Northern Mexico.
What does the word Inca mean?
Ruler
What were the boundaries of the Incan Empire by the early 15th century?
Ecuador, central Chile, and the edge of the Amazon basin. Included perhaps 12 million people.
Who was Francisco Pizarro?
(1475-1541) Spanish explorer. In 1530, landed on the Pacific coast of South America with about 180 men. The Incan Empire was already decimated by smallpox and civil wars. Pizarro seized and executed their leader, Atahualpa. By 1535, Pizarro had set up a capital for the new colony of the Spanish empire.
Briefly define viceroys and audiencias.
In the New World, the Spanish developed an administrative system based on viceroys, or governors. Each viceroy served as the king's chief military officer and was aided by advisory groups called audiencias. These also functioned as supreme judicial bodies.
How did Catholicism in the New World spread?
By papal agreement, Catholic monarchs of Spain were given extensive rights over ecclesiastical affairs in the New World. They appointed all clergy, built churches, and collected fees. Catholic missionaries, like the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits, fanned out across the Spanish Empire, where they converted and baptized hundreds of thousands of Indians.
Explain the Dutch East India Company.
A trading company established in 1602 under government sponsorship. First company to issue stock. Set up a settlement in southern Africa, at the Cape of Good Hope, which developed into a permanent colony.
Who were the Boers?
Dutch farmers who chose to settle in the settlement at the Cape of Good Hope because of its moderate climate and lack of tropical diseases.
List the social effects of the African slave trade.
There were, obviously, tragic effects on the lives of the slaves and their families. Also, depopulation of African areads deprived many communities of their youngest and strongest men and women.
Name an economic effect of the African slave trade.
The importation of cheap labor and goods drove countless European villages and peasants into poverty. (Essentially, outsourcing)
Name a political effect of the African slave trade.
The need for a constant supply of slaves led to increased warfare and violence among African tribes. They were armed with guns that had been gained in the slave trade, so destruction increased.
What was Benin?
A society in West Africa that had been brilliant and creative in the 16th century, but was pulled into the slave trade. By the time the British arrived in the 19th century, people had lost their faith in their gods, human sacrifice had become common, and it was altogether a savage place.
What was the first group to speak out against slave trade?
The Society of Friends, also known as the Quakers, began to criticize slavery in the 1770s.
Which European countries abolished slavery and why?
During the radical stage of the French Revolution in the 1790s, France abolished slavery. In 1807, the British followed suit with the Slave Trade Act.
Who pushed the Slave Trade Act through Parliament?
William Wilberforce
Define encomienda.
Spanish system instituted by Queen Isabella that permitted the conquistadors to collect tribute from Native Americans and used them as laborers.
Define mita.
In Peru, a system that allowed authorities to draft native labor to work in the silver mines.
What were the main reasons why the Native American populations dropped dramatically?
Forced labor, starvation, and disease (smallpox, measles, typhus).
Who was Bartolome de las Casas?
"Protector of the Indians" A Dominican friar and author of "The History of the Indies." Because of him, the Spanish abolished the encomienda system and provided more protection for the natives.
Why were Portugal's efforts to dominate trade in Southeast Asis unsuccessful?
The Portuguese lacked both the numbers and the wealth to overcome local resistance and to colonize the Asian regions. Portugal's empire was simply too large for such a small country to maintain.
Describe the triangular trade.
Connected Europe, Africa, and the American continents. European manufactured goods such as gin, guns, and cloth went to Africa, where they were traded for slaves. The slaves were then shipped to America and sold. European merchants bought tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, and raw cotton from America.
How many Africans were involved in the slave trade?
An estimated 275,000 enslaved Africans were exported to other countries during the 16th century. In the 17th century, the total climbed to over a million. In the 18th century, it hit 6 million.
What was the Middle Passage, and what did it have to do with the death rate of slaves?
The journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas. Slaves were closely packed into cargo ships, and chained in holds without sanitary facilities or room to stand up. The voyage took at least 100 days. Average death rate was 10%. Also, encountering new diseases killed many newcomers.
Who were the three primary threats to Portuguese power in Southeast Asia and why?
The Spanish, the Dutch, and the English were all better financed.
Who were the Mughals?
A foreign dynasty in India (not natives of India). Founder of the Mughals= Babur. Akbar (1556-1605), Babur's grandson, brought Mughal rule to most of India.
India...
Who were the first Europeans to arrive in India?
The Portuguese.
Who was Sir Robert Clive?
British military genius who eventually became the chief representative of the East India Company (joint-stock company founded in 1600).
What was the "Black Hole of Calcutta"?
An underground prison in Bengal designed for holding British prisoners, many of whom died in captivity.
What was the Battle of Plassey?
In 1757, a small British force of 3,000 defeated a Mughal-led army of 30,000. Because of this, the British East India Company received the authority to collect taxes from lands surrounding Calcutta.
How did the Seven Years' War affect French occupation of India?
During the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), the British forced the French to withdraw completely from India.
Which European country first made contact with China, 200 years after the journeys of Marco Polo?
Portugal, 1514
When the Portuguese first encountered the Chinese in 1514, what was the political status of China?
China appeared to be at the height of its power as the most magnificent civilization on Earth. From the lofty perspective of the imperial throne in Beijing, the Europeans were barbarians. The Chinese emperor was thought to be the son of Heaven.
Ming Dynasty
(1369-1644) China extended its rule to Mongolia and central Asia; even briefly reconquered Vietnam. Peasant revolt due to epidemic led to downfall of Ming dynasty.
Qing Dynasty
"Pure" Dynasty. The Manchus, a farming and hunting tribe, conquered Beijing after the revolt and created the Qing Dynasty. During this dynasty, the most serious social and economic ills were corrected, and peace and prosperity were restored.
What were the first signs of internal decay in the Manchu (Qing) Dynasty of China?
Qing military campaigns were expensive and placed heavy demands on the treasury. Increasing pressure on the land due to population growth led to economic hardship for peasants.
What was happening in Europe during the decline of the Qing Dynasty?
Europe was increasing pressure for more trade.
How did the Qing dynasty set up trade relations with Europe, especially Britain?
The Qing government confined all European traders to a small island outside Canton and allowed them to trade only from October to March.
What actions did Britain take to open trade with China?
British traders began to demand access to other cities along the Chinese coast. In 1793, a British mission under Lord Macartney visiting Beijing to press for fewer trade relations. The emperor refused.
What happened politically to Japan during the 16th century?
A number of powerful individuals worked to achieve the unification of Japan.
Who was Tokugawa Ieyasu?
(1543-1616) Shogun ("general") of Japan from 1603 to 1616. Started one of the longest shogunates of Japan. His family remained in power until 1868.
When did the Portuguese first land in Japan?
1543
Who was Francis Xavier?
Jesuit missionary who traveled to Japan in 1549 to convert the locals to Christianity.
What was the first reaction of the Japanese toward the Europeans, and why did it change?
Initially, the Japanese were fascinated by the Europeans, with their tobacco, clocks, eyeglasses, and weapons. However, the success of missionaries provoked a strong reaction against Westerners. When they interfered in politics, they were expelled from Japan.
What was the only country allowed to continue trading with Japan and why?
The Dutch were allowed to stay and trade with Japan after the Spanish and Portuguese had been kicked out because they had not sent missionaries to Japan.
What were the theories of mercantilism?
The total volume of trade is unchangeable- "bullion pie"
Economics is war carried on by peaceful means.
Wealth of a nation= bullion
Favorable balance of trade- exports>imports
What is the antithesis of mercantilism?
laissez-faire
What happened on October 31, 1517?
Luther posted his 95 Theses
Policies of mercantilist states
Create subsidies
Export more than you import
Quality control
Import foreign artisans
Monopolies
What is the Columbian Exchange? Who came up with it? Who was influenced by it?
The Columbian Exchange was the study of how the Old and New Worlds affected each other. Alfred Crosby came up with it, and Jared Diamond was inspired by it.
Explain the difference between absolutism and divine right.
Absolutism does not have to be religious, but divine right does.
Explain balanced polity.
The Tudors and Parliament shared a good working relationship.
Who established the Bourbon dynasty?
Henry of Navarre, replaced the Valois.
Who was the first Russian ruler with the title of Czar?
Ivan IV. He acheived independence from the Mongols.
What does the word Tsar come from?
Caesar
Explain what is meant historically by Latin American culture?
Mixture of cultures in Southern America.
Why did James I and Charles I clash with Parliament?
They believed in divine right.
Who was the chief minister of Louis XIII? What was his nickname?
Richelieu- "Iron Cardinal"
Describe 3 policies Richelieu practiced.
Created intendant system, elaborate spy network, took away the rights of the Huguenots.
What was the capital of the Prussian state?
Berlin
Describe 3 examples of the strict etiquette required at Versailles.
One had to scratch at the door instead of knocking. When the king's food passed, everyone had to bow to it. When the king walked into the room, people would have to start speaking formal French.
Explain 2 religious causes of the witchcraft trials.
Religious intolerance
Scapegoats
What was a stadholder?
Governor of the United Provinces
List two new business methods during the Commerical Revolution.
Joint-stock companies, insurance companies.
Explain one social/economic reason for the witchcraft trials.
People that were economic drains on society because they were incapable of working, etc., were cast aside.
Explain the significance of the Magna Carta.
English law signed in 1215 by John I; No taxation without representation.
Name the Tudor monarchs in order.
Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Jane Grey, Mary I, Elizabeth I
Who was the regent for young Louis XIV?
Cardinal Mazarin
What was the Fronde?
Noble-led rebellion in France; nobles tried to kidnap young Louis XIV.
Explain three facets of Westernization under Peter the Great.
Implemented mercantilist policies; regulated the dress of nobles (no beards); issued a primer on etiquette; created the Russian navy; strengthened army.
Who was nicknamed the Prince of the Humanists?
Erasmus
What was the nickname of Louis XIV? What was his motto?
The Sun King, as in the center of the court. "Un roi, un loi, un foi."
Who was nicknamed Il Divino?
Michelangelo.
What is a standing army? Conscription?
Permanent army, loyal to the king. Conscription is a military draft.
What treaty gave the United Provinces formal independence?
Peace of Westphalia.