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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Martin Luther
Humanist-educated priest who "didn't like Big Church or Big Government"; proclaimed the need for reform (against indulgences, sale of church offices, &c.); wrote 95 theses and three pamphlets
Justification by faith alone
Luther's theory that God's righteousness is too perfect for us to achieve, so belief in Christ is enough for salvation
Diet of Worms
Luther presented his issues to Charles V, but he is outlawed in the Edict of Worms, so he fled and worked behind the scenes
Esurge Domine
Pope Leo X gave Luther six days to take it all back; Luther refused; Decet Pontificam Romanum excommunicated him
Diet of Augsburg
Charles V ordered all Lutherans to revert to Catholicism; they refuse with the Augsburg Confessions
Augsburg Interim
Charles V sent out armies against Lutherans and demanded they revert; he took it back in the Peace of Passau
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V decreed cuius regio, eius religio (permanently divides Christendom)
Ignatius of Loyola
Founded the Jesuits; encouraged traditional trusting obedience to the Church
Council of Trent
Catholic Counter-Reformation: Pope Paul IV made bishops move locally, strengthened local power, tightened reigns on the clergy, retained transubstantiation, &c.
Marburg Colloquy
Split in Protestantism; Luther and Zwingli disagree on the nature of the Eucharist
John Calvin
Founded his own Protestant movement based on divine predestination and an individuals responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan
Henry VIII
Married everybody; became head of the Church OF England (Act of Supremacy) and head of the Church IN England (Convocation)
Act of Succession
Named Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne
Henry of Navarre
Huguenot leader who married into the French royal family; became King Henry IV upon the death of Henry III; Catholics panicked (a Protestant on the French throne!) but Henry declared himself Catholic ("Paris is worth a Mass")
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV's formal religious settlement; sanctioned minority religions but kept France Catholic; granted Huguenots freedom of public worship, right of assembly, admission to public offices, and permission to maintain fortified towns
Mary, Queen of Scots
Wife of Francis II of France who inherited the English throne; became the Catholic queen of a Protestant country; held her own private Masses

Forced to flee from scandal; her reputed lover was accused of killing her husband, then she married him; she left the crown to her one-year-old son, James
Sir Frances Drake
English seaman who preyed on Spanish ships and is famous for shelling the port of Cadiz; circumnavigated the globe (example of English naval superiority)
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years' War; removed the Edict of Restitution; reasserted the Peace of Ausgburg and gave Calvinists recognition; gave elector status to Bavaria, granted independence to Holland and the Swiss Confederacy, gave German princes territorial superiority