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5 Cards in this Set

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Talk about Edmund Burke and his involvement in the English Reform Movement.
Edmund Burke and the Reform Movement
1. Important Whig leaders sense “corruption” after control is passed to George III and his “friends”
2. Edmund Burke comes out as the most eloquent spokesman for the Whig cause.
3. Other reformers are calling for more frequent elections, annual parliaments, wider universal male suffrage.
4. Edmund Burke opposes the beliefs of the “other reformers”
5. Burke emerges as the founder of philosophical conservatism (insistence on the political and social value of inherited tradition)
-concerned that the House of Commons should be more independent and responsible than that it should be mathematically representative. (?)
-wanted the land-owning interest to govern
-members of parliament should follow their own best judgment on issues; they shouldn’t be bound by influence from the King or the people.
-objected to the “placemen”, or jobholders dependent on their ministerial patrons
6. 1775: Burke makes a famous speech praying for English conciliation w/the colonies
-his insistence on the powers and dignity of Parliament made it hard for him to find a solution to the American Rev., so once the colonies gained independence, he stopped caring.
6. 1782: Passes his Economical Reform, which abolishes many forms of crown patronage.
What were some of the reasons that the English Reform movement didn't work?
Challenges of the English Reform Movement
-William Pitt-Prime minister in the 1780s, supports the Reform Movement
-During the French Rev., the Reform Movement spread to more popular levels.
-But…conservatism, satisfaction w/the British constitution, and patriotism from French Wars, plus from the reaction against the French Rev., all created barriers for the Reform movement.

*Like Other countries, Britian’s other large goal in the reform movement was centralization.
Talk about the British rule in Scotland.
The Highlanders
-never really under any gov’t control
-ruled by clan chiefs under hereditary jurisdiction
-a few leaders could throw the whole region to the Stuarts or the French
1. 1745: With French assistance, the Highlanders revolt in the Jacobite rising.
2. They invade England and threaten to attack the British gov’t
-Britain is at war w/France!
3. The British gov’t places troops in the Highlands of Scotland
-enforce the laws of the Scottish lowlands (where the people are loyal to Great Britain)
-Revenue officers collect funds for the royal treasury
-Highlands chiefs lose old feudal rule
-Old system of land tenure is broken up, clannish chiefs can’t hold land
-Highland Regiments are formed in the British army
-Scots are forbidden to wear the kilt or play the bagpipes
Talk about the British Rule in Ireland.
-native/Catholic Irish were pro-French
-Presby Irish didn’t like the French or the Pope, but they were still hated by England
-many Presby Irish immigrated to America
-took the American side in the American Rev.
-greatly influenced by the American Rev., thousands formed themselves into Volunteer Companies—wearing uniforms, bearing arms, etc.
-demanded internal reform of the Irish parliament, greater independence of the Irish parliament
British Reaction to Ireland’s demands
1. Britain fears the demands, plus the possibility of a French invasion of Ireland during the American Rev.
2. Britain extends an increase of power to the Irish parliament at Dublin
-but, Catholics are still excluded from this Parliament
3. 1793: France and Great Britain are at war
4. Irish Catholics and Irish Presbys form a network of United Irish Societies throughout Ireland
-seek French military aid (French fail!)
5. 1798: The United Irish rise and try drive out the English
6. The British suppress the Irish rebellion and abolish the separate Kingdom of Ireland and the Irish parliament
7. The British represent the Irish in the Imperial Parliament at Westminster.
8. 1801: Act of Union creates the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Talk about the British rule in India.
-the various British establishments were unconnected and subordinate only to the E. India co. in London
-Company employees were interfering in Indian politics, corruption
1773: Ministry of Lord North passes the Regulating Act to regulate the British subjects in India
-the political activities of the E. India Co. were brought under the power of Parliament
-All British establishments were brought together under a single Governor General
-Warren Hastings= first Gov. General in India
-he was very corrupt, so he was impeached in a 7 year trial, finally acquitted.
-But, Hastings really expanded British supremacy in India
-A new supreme court w/British judges is installed at Calcutta
-1784: An India Office is created in the British ministry; the Gov General in India rules the British sphere in India as an almost absolute monarch under Parliament.