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9 Cards in this Set

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Talk about the French influence on Russia during the enlightenment.
-During the Age of Enlightenment, French culture/thought dominated aristocratic culture in Russia.
-Russian court/aristocracy used French language
*Overall, the Russian enlightenment and French influence further westernized Russia, estranged aristocracy from the serfs.
Talk about Russia after Peter the Great. Mention all succeding rulers.
1. 1725: Peter the Great dies
-To secure his revolution, Peter the Great had declared that each tsar should name his successor. Peter hadn’t named one. He had also killed his own son Alexis to prevent social reaction (?)
2. Russia falls into a period of instability when a German party fights against a native Russian party for control.
3. Numerous short-lived tsars, tsarinas, gov’ts are installed, without success—CHAOS!
4. 1741: Palace Revolution brings Elizabeth, Peter the Great’s daughter, to the throne
under Elizabeth:
-military power of Russia expands
-enters into European diplomacy, fights in 7 year’s war against Prussia
5. 1762: Peter III, Elizabeth’s nephew, takes the throne. Elizabeth died.
6. 1762: Peter III is dethroned instantly/killed by group who supports his wife Catherine
7. Peter is declared a “half-wit”
8. Catherine becomes Empress Catherine II, Catherine the Great (1762)
Talk about Catherine's background.
Background of Catherine the Great
-born into a small princely house in HRE; German
-went to Russia at age 15 to be married
-learned Russia, embraced Orthodox church
-soon saw her opportunity for being empress after realizing how bad her husband was
In what ways were Catherine the Great enlightened?
Catherine the Great-Enlightened friends and habits
-approached politics with a great practicality, great energy
-friends w/Voltaire, Diderot, other philosophes
-lots of physical vigor, always reading
What were Catherine the Great's reforms? (not including serfdom)
-1767: summoned the Legislative Commission, a great consultative assembly
-fierce loyalty of the deputies in the commission proved her stronghold upon Russia
1. Restricted the use of torture
2. Certain support of religious toleration
-no Old believers can build their own chapels
3. Codified laws
*Philosophes loved all of this!
What were the conditions of serfdom that led up to Pugachev's rebellion?
1. Serfs were being sold like cattle
2. Harsh punishment, work in mines, exiles to Siberia
3. Old Believers were “working them up”
4. Serfs were exaggerating/remembering Stephen Razin, the famous leader of the last major serf revolt.
5. Class antagonism/disconnect even worse b/c of the influence of French culture on the aristocracy
Talk about Pugachev's 1773-1774 rebellion.
1. 1773: Emelian Pugachev (former soldier) is the leader of a serf insurrection in the Urals.
2. Pugachev claims to be Peter III, (who was dead!) the true tsar, just returning from vacation in Egypt/Jerusalem.
3. Since he was “tsar”, Pugachev surrounded himself with his “imperial office”
4. Pugachev issues an imperial manifesto proclaiming an end to serfdom, taxes, military conscription.
5. Tens of hundreds of thousands of people from all over join Pugachev.
6. Pugachev and his “army” surge through E. Russia, burning, pillaging, killing priests and landlords.
7. Moscow, on the verge of war, (tons of serfs lived in Moscow!) sends unsuccessful military expeditions against Pugachev.
8. 1774: famine along the Volga breaks up the rebels
9. Some of Pugachev’s own followers betray him
10. Pugachev is brought to Moscow in an iron cage, and is drawn-and-quartered.
Describe Catherine the Great's reaction to Pugachev's rebellion.
-the rebellion was the most violent uprising in the history of Russia
-Catherine reacted by repressing the serfs to the extreme
-she created a society where the aristocracy fully supported her, as long as they had complete control of their manors and serfs. Essentially, the aristocracy could do whatever they pleased with their serfs. Gov’t laws really only applied to the aristocracy.
-the number of serfs increased, serfdom= American slavery
Describe Catherine the Great's role in the wars in the Polish/Turkish area. Be sure to remember Grigory Potemkin.
Catherine’s War with the Poland/Turkey Area—did Cath have all of Poland ever(?)
1.1772: Catherine goes to war with Turkey, develops her “Greek Project”
-members of the Greek Orth. Church would replace Muslims as the dominant element throughout the ME.
2. Catherine defeats the Turks at war
3. The First Partition of Poland
-a seizure of land and people in which the monarchs of Prussia, Russia and Autria begin to divide up Polish territory between them.
-Frederick the Great- takes Pomerelia (becomes W. Prussia)
-Cath takes parts of Byelorussia
-Maria Theresa takes Galicia (not happy!)
4. 1774: Cath signs a peace treat with the defeat Turks at Kuchuck Kainarji
-Sultan cedes his rights of N Coast of Black Sea to Russia--Crimea
-Russia founds the sea port of Odessa
5. Cath decides to neutralize the opposition of Austria
-invites Joseph II to visit Crimea
-Catherine and her adviser/lover Grigory Potemkin tour Crimea w/ Joseph II, see the newly established fortresses/towns that Potemkin established. Poetmkin’s enemies claimed that the new towns were a façade—calling them “Potemkin Villages” to make a false vision of prosperity.
-Cath and Joseph passed through a gate marked “The Road to Byzantium”
-Joseph II: “What I want is Silesia”
6. Cath induces Joseph II to go to war w/her against Turkey
7. During the French Rev., Cath tried to incite Autria, Prussia into war w/France
8. Cath kills off a nationalist/reform movement in Poland
9. 1793: Cath arranges with Prussia for the Second Partition of Poland
10. 1795: Cath arranges the Third Partition of Poland w/Prussia and Austria
*Cath was the only ruler alive for all 3 partitions of Poland