• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Triple Alliance
1881
Italy joined Germany and Austria
Italy wanted support for its ambitions in Mediterranean and Africa
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
1887
Agreement between Russia and Germany of neutrality if either one went to war with another country, arranged by Bismarck
Russia wanted to renew it
Kaiser Wilhelm refused to renew it after Bismarck ousted
Wilhelm wanted closer ties to Austria
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Japan agreed to neutrality if Russia became a threat to India
Triple Entente
1907
Britain, France, Russia
a response to the Triple Alliance
not formal; just principleLay Down Your Arms
Bertha von Suttnet
Bertha von Suttner
Inspired peace movements in Austria and Germany
First woman to win Nobel Peace Prize
Dreadnoughts
WWI: super battleships with awesome firing range
Kruger Telegram
triggered British anger
Algeciras Conference
1906 settled the first Morroccan Crisis
Kaiser urged Moroccan independence in spite of France having claimed it
Britain and Italy supported France
Pan-slavism
united slavs for Russia
First Balkan Crisis
Bosnian Crisis
Young Turksled by Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal Pasha) set up a parliamentary government in the Ottoman Empire
progressive
Young Turks
Ataturk set up a parliamentary government in Ottoman Empire
First Balkan War
1912
Serbia Greece Bulgaria allied to successfully drive the Turks out of the Balkans
Fighting lasted less than 1 month
Most of the Blkan territory now divided among Balkan states
Serbia wanted access to Adriatic, but blocked by Austria creation of Albania
Second Balkan War
1913
Bulgaria angry at Serbia and Greece
more territory in 1st Balkan War than Bulgaria
Serbia defeated Bulgaria and temporarily gained Albania
Russia backed Serbia
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, member of Black hand, Gavrilo Princip while Franz Ferdinand touring in Bosnia
Central Powers
Triple Alliance
Germany Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
Allies
Triple Entete
britain, France, Russia, later Japan Italy and US
Western Front
Schlieffen Plan
west germany, east France
Schleffen Plan
invade France through belgium, defeat France quickly by sweeping around Paris and redeploying easta to defeat Russia
reasonable
Battle of the Marne
Germany came within sight of Paris, French and British forces pushed Germans back
Battle of Verdun
Feb 1916
France lost 540,000
German lost 430,000
French General Petain a national hero
Battle of the Somme
July 1916
British and French offensive to braek through German lines
Britain lost 420,000
France lost 200,000
Germany lost 650,000
All Quiet on the Western Front
film by Erich Remarque (1929)
horrors of trench warfare
U-Boats
first by Germans (most important reason US entered war)
submarines
General von Hindenburg...General von Ludendorf
german generals defeated Russian armies at Tannenburg
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
12-17
Lenin took Russia out of war. Cost him 1/4 of Russian territory
T.E. Lawrence
Lawrence of Arabia
British officer who had major victories against Turks
dressed like Arab
Britain gained support of Arab tribes whor esented Ottoman rule
Lusitania
1915
sunk by U boats
1200 died
Germany unrestricted submarine warfare
Archangel Expedition
summer 1918
allies invade Russia to prevent Bolshevik victory
Allies sent troops to Siberia to prevent Japanese control of region and to rescue stranded Dzechs
prolong Russian Civil War
Clemenceau
ruled in France with virtual dictatorship
Zimmerman Note
German note to Mexico, keep US busy is US entered European war. Mexico rece3ive lost lands to the north
Balfour Note
Arabs and Jews in palestine promised autonomy if they joined allies
Wilson
Us president
14 points
14 oints
wilson
1-5: eliminateion of general causes of war
6-13: self determination
14: league of nations
League of Nations
14th point
Germany, Russia, US out
Wilson
failed
Paris Peace Conference
Big Four, central powers not included
Ended WWI
Big Four
Wilson: US
Lloyd George: England
Clemencau: France
Orlando: Italy
Versailles Treaty
1919 ended WWI
Mandates former colonies belonging to centrtal powers
mcuh of middle east now controlled by England
ARTICLE 231: wwwi germany's fault
German reparations
Article 231
placed sole blame for war on Germany
John Maynard Keynes
Economic COnsequences of the PEace
predicted harsh terms of the treaty would hurt Germany's economy, and therefore the economy of the rest of Europe and lead to significant political unrest