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20 Cards in this Set

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The Netherlands (things in general)
Republic (rather than monarchy/parliament); provinces had considerable authority; religious toleration
States General
Central government of the Netherlands (dominated by Holland)
The Netherlands (economy)
Instead of fighting over religion, the Dutch achieved economic prosperity, urbanization, transformed agriculture, trade and an overseas empire, an advanced financial system, and developed industries (fishing, textiles, shipbuilding, &c.)

BUT

When William III died, no one replaced him: the Dutch suddenly lacked unified political leadership and everything went downhill
Dutch East Indied Company
Netherlands trading presence in East Asia
Louis XV
Grandson of Louis XIV; takes the throne at five years old
Duke of Orleans
Louis XV's regent; put John Law in charge of finances and restored the authority of parlements
John Law
Louis XV's financial manager; had a gambing problme; fled the country when his plan for economic recovery became a disaster
Mississippi Company
1. Issued paper money
2. Organized a monopoly on trading privileges w/ Louisiana
3. Managed the national debt by issuing its own stock
Mississippi Bubble
John Law's scandal: Law thought that an increase in the amount of paper money would help France's economy recover from war. Investors bought stock in the Mississippi Company; prices rose and investors sold their stock in exchange for government bonds, and then sought to redeem the bonds for paper money and then the money for gold. The Company ran out of gold - scandalous.
Parlements
Governing bodies not allowed to legislate, but given the authority to approve or disapprove of royal law; duke of Orleans gave the parlements full authority, and so they became a center for resistance to the king's laws
Cardinal Fleury
Chief minister of the French court; tried to solve France's financial problems, but with little success; he also failed to train Louis XV to be an effective king
James Edward
"Stuart pretender" who challenged King George I for the throne of England; shortly defeated, but gained the support of some Tories, who were anti-George
Tories
Initially: supported a strong monarchy, low taxes, and Anglicanism

But then: favored peace in the war with France and, finding themselves at odds with the Whigs, rally behind James Edward

And so: when George became king, Tories were denied public office and patronage
Whigs
Initially: favored Parliamentary sovreignty, commercial interests, and religious toleration

But then: sought the favor of future King George I, so they support German interests in the war with France; the plan works

And so: When George becomes king, Whigs are allowed public office and patronage
Robert Walpole
Saved the financial integrity of England from another bubble-scandal, in which South Sea Company stock crashed; adopted measures to honor the national debt

Credited with being England's first prime minister and the originator of the cabinet system of government
Parliament (structure)
House of Lords (hereditary positions); House of Commons (two representatives from each county); dominated by large landowners
Political life in England
Characterized by freedom - newspapers and debate, freedom of speech, no large standing army, Tories openly opposed the king; limits were imposed on Walpole's power; Parliament was responsive to popular pressure
South Sea Company
England's trade company; almost had a Mississippi Bubble scandal, but Walpole came to the rescue
"quieta non movere"
The book says this means "Let sleeping dogs lie," but I disagree - it means something more along the lines of "Do not disturb that which is still." I think it's important that you know this.
Hanoverian dynasty
German line of inheritance to the English throne; began with King George I after the Act of Settlement