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25 Cards in this Set

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Central and Eastern Europe (in comparison to Maritimes)
Less economically advanced, fewer cities, serfdom, no overseas empire or trade, conflict took place at home, "soft" political structure
Ottoman Empire
Dominant political power in the Muslim world; very big and diverse (toleration); religious authorities were very influential (which ultimately became a bad thing as they held too much onto tradition and refused to modernize)
Millets
Units through which sultans governed; officially recognized religious communities, each with their own laws/rights/affairs/&c.
Dhimmis
Non-Islamic persons practicing a recognized religion; considered second-class citizens...

1. Could not serve the empire
2. Paid a special poll tax (jizyah)
3. Could not serve in the military
4. Could not wear certain colors

...but enjoyed economic success (because their skills remained isolated within communities)
Devshirme
Process by which the Ottomans recruited elite troops; gathered Christian boys and raised them as Muslims
Janissaries
Elite infantry
Government positions
The Ottomans recruited authority figures from groups loyal to the sultan, not from powerful families. Slaves of the sultan filled important positons and achieved great influence and status
Ulama
Islamic scholars; played a big role in government as advisors; failed to recognize the need to modernize and contributed to the decline of the empire
Circle of Equity
The sultan and his administrators would consult the Ulama for advice; in return the Ulama would support the state
Decline of the Ottoman Empire (contributing factors)
1. Failed attempts at expansion
2. Internal rivalry weakens the government
3. Falling behind in technology
4. Loss of trade (Europe circumnavigates the Middle East)
5.Loss of territory (Treaty of Carlowitz)
6. Inwardness and isolation
7. Influence of the Ulama
Treaty of Carlowitz
Forced the Ottomans to surrender territories at the heart of their empire (very damaging)
King John III Sobieski
Led a Polish army to rescue Vienna from the Turks (this is the only nice thing the chapter says about Poland and I think it's important that you know it)
Poland (politically)
Divisions among the Polish nobility prevented the election of a monarch; most Polish kings were tools of foreign powers
Sejm
Polish legislative body; included only the nobility (lacked represenation completely)
Liberum veto
Any one member of the Sejm could disband the body (they called this "exploding the diet") and unanimity was required to to anything (this made it really hard for the Sejm to be even a little bit effective)
Habsburg Empire (geographically)
The Austrian Habsburgs acquired a lot of far-flung and diverse territories with no basis for political unity; to establish some kind of uniformity and control, they began to create common policies and bargain with the nobilities of each territory

(the only particular territory I care to know is Bohemia)
Leopold I (Austrian Habsburgs)
Successful leader: rallied the domains to resist the Ottomans, suppressed a Magyar rebellion, conquered Romania and the Balkan Peninsula

Strength gained in the east have Austria political leverage in Germany
Pragmatic Sanction
Charles VI of Austria had no male heir, so he created a legal basis for his daughter Maria Theresa to inherit the throne

But: when Charles dies, he leaves Maria Theresa without a lot of soldiers or money, thus making the empire vulnerable to foreign aggression (Frederick II of Prussia invades)
Hohenzollerns and their territories
Prussian family who, like the Habsburgs, acquired a lot of geographically separated and economically useless territories (and ruled Brandenburg besides); to unite their holdings, the Prussians used their army
Frederick William (Great Elector)
Began to unite the territories: broke local noble estates, organized a royal bureaucracy, created a strong army (funded by taxes)
Junkers
Nobilities of the Prussian territories; allowed dominion over serfs in exchange for their cooperation with Frederick William
Frederick I (the first King of Prussia)
Son of the Great Elector; did nice things instead of conquering, but lent the army to the Holy Roman Emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession - in exhange for the favor, the emperor granted him the title "King of Prussia"
Frederick William I (THE King of Prussia)
Son of Frederick I; very effective ruler

1. Initiated Kabinett policy (allows him to rule alone)
2. Imposed taxes on the nobility
3. United all departments under the General Directory
4. Transformed loyalties into a sense of duty to the monarch (as an institution, not an individual)
Prussian army
Symbol of Prussian power and unity, not an instrument of agression; the army became the highest social class and military values dominated daily life
Frederick II
Lacks the wisdom of Frederick William I and uses the army to invade Silesia