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48 Cards in this Set

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ch18

writers, critics who forged new attitudes favorable to change and who florished in the emerging print culture
philosophes

ch18#1
ch18

approach study in mature way; empirical support; concrete experience; rationality in the physical world; if nature rational then so should society
Newtonian worldview

ch18#2
ch18

all humans enter world blank; personality product of sensation ffrom experience
John Lock/ An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)

ch18#3
ch18

we enter as blank slate
tabula rasa

ch18#4
ch18

voice of enlightenment; conveiction of need for change in France and admiration of Britian;
Francois Marie Arouet/ Voltaire

ch18#5
ch18

praised virtues of English and indirectly criticized French society
1773: Letters on the English

ch18#6
ch18

popularized the thoughts of Voltaire
1738: Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

ch18#7
ch18

Voltaire worte fo many essays, history papers, plays, stories, and letters
"literary dictator"

ch18#8
ch18

satire-attacked war and what he reguarded as unwarnted optimism about human condition
1759: Candide

ch18#9
ch18

culture on which books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets had achieved a status of their own
"print culture"

ch18#10
ch18

English essayist, critic, and dictinary; published as books collections of essays that had first appeared in newspapers or journals
Samuel Johnson

ch18#11
ch18

fostered the value of polite conversations and the reading of books
The Spectator: Joseph Addison/ Richard Steel

ch18#12
ch18

one of teh greatest undertakings in print culture; 17 volmes; most advanced ideals on religion, gov, philosophy, etc.
Encyclopedia/ Denis Diderot/ Jean Le Rond d' Alembert

ch18#13
ch18

summed up attitude of a # pf philosophes toward church and Chritianity
"Crush the Infamous Thing"

ch18#14
ch18

philosophes believed that life of religion and life of reason could be combined giving rise to new movement
deism

ch18#15
ch18

early deist work; indicated general tenor of this religious outlook-religion natural and rational
1696: Christanity Not Mysterious/ John Toland

ch18#16
ch18

accused of having murdered his con to precent him from converting to RC; tortured and strangled and never confessed
Jean Calas

ch18#17
ch18

hounded authorities for new investigation for Calas; 1765 judicial decision was reversed
1763: Treatise on Tolerance

Ch18#18
ch18

german playwrite and critic; a ploea for toleration of Christiansects and other religions
1779: Nathan the Wise/ Gotthold Lessing

ch18#19
ch18

voltire: humerously pointed out inconsistencies in biblical narratives and immoral acts of heros
1764: Philosophical Dictionary

ch18#20
ch18

argued that no empirical evidence supported the belief in divine miracles central to Cristianity
1748: Of Miracles (Inquiry into Human Nature): David Hume

ch18#21
ch18

explained rise of Christianityin terms of natural causes rather than the influence of miracles and piety
1776: The Decline and the Fall of the Roman Empire: Edward Gibbon

ch18#22
ch18

opened enlightment to larger debate over relgiion and place of Jews in European life
Baruch Spinoza

ch18#23
ch18

Spinoza indentified God and nature closely
Ethics

ch18#24
ch18

Spinoza anticipated religious criticism of the Enlightenment and attacks power of superstition in human life
1670: Theologic-Political Treatise

ch18#25
ch18

leading Jewish philosopher--advocated the entry of Jews into modern Eruropean life; posibility of loyalty to Judaism combined with adherence to rational enlightenment values
Moses Mendelsohn (Jewish Socrates)

ch18#26
ch18

Mendelsohn argued both for advancing extensive relgious toleration and maintaining religious distiction of Jewish communities
1783: Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism

ch18#27
ch18

applied critical analysis to problem of making punishments both effective and just
1764: On Crime adn Punishment: Cesare Becarria

ch18#28
ch18

philosophes in France; mercantilsm and regulation of labor hampered trade expansion etc.; gov protect property
physiocrates

ch18#29
ch18

physiocrates leaders in France
Francois Quesnay/ Pierre Dupont de Nemours

ch18#30
ch18

important economic work of Enlightenment; economic liberty was the foundation of natural economic sys
1776: Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations: Adam Smith

ch18#31
ch18

Smith founder; favors limited role for gov in economic life
Iaissez-faire

ch18#32
ch18

human societies can be classified as hunting, gathering, agric, commercia
four-stage theory

ch18#33
ch18

noble of rode, lawyer; Bordeaux Academy of Science and presented papers on science topics
Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu

ch18#34
ch18

Montesquieu: satirize contemporary institutions; how Euro behavior contrasted w/ Persian
1721: The Persian Letters

ch18#35
ch18

example of British constitution as the wisest model for regulating teh power of gov
1748: The Spirit of Laws

ch18#36
ch18

antipathy for world and society; humans can't live by commercial values to live lives
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

ch18#37
ch18

process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature
1750: Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Science

ch18#38
ch18

blamed musch evil in the world on uneven distribution of property
1755: Discourse on the Origins of Inequality

ch18#39
ch18

does not propose reforms but outlines political structure that he believed would overcome evils of contemporary politics and society
1762: The Socail Contract/ Locke

ch18#40
ch18

mistress of Louis XV-key role in effort to censor Encyclopedia; helped block circulation of works attacking philosopes
Marquise de Pompadour

ch18#41
ch18

set forth radical version of view that men and women occupy seperate shperes; women suvordinate men
1762: Emile/ Rousseau

ch18#42
ch18

brought Rousseau before judgment of rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge
1792: A Vindication of the Rights of Women/ Mary Wollstonecraft

ch18#43
ch18

declared "Peter was born, and Russia was formed"
1759: History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great/ Voltaire

ch18#44
ch18

noneconomic policies; Hohenzollern policy of toleration; allowed Catholics and Jews; appointed Prot. major positions; "first servant of teh state"
Frederick the Great of Prussia

ch18#45
ch18

Austria was the most diverse in its people and problems
"vast holding company"

ch18#46
ch18

support nobility; attempted to suppress internal varriers to trade; friend of philosophes
Catherine the Great

ch18#47
ch18

guaranteed nobles rights; empress had no choice but to favor nobles
1785: The Charter of Nobility

ch18#48