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87 Cards in this Set

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Ch.10

-describes Renaissance as 'protype of the modern world'
-argues in 14/15 century Italy through revival of ancient learnign, new secular and scientific values began to supplant traditional religious beliefs.
-result, a release of the 'full, whole nature of man'
-wrote
Jacob Burckhardt/ "Civilization of the REnaissance in Italy"

#1 Ch.10
Ch.10

-took shape within cities of late midieval Italy
-trade-rich cities expanded to
-growth assisted by endemic warfare b/t emperor and pope
city-states

#2 Ch10
ch10

-part of Venice oligarchy, power at patrician sentate of 300
-ruthless judical body, anticipated and suppressed rival groups
Council of Ten

#3 ch10
ch10

-nobles and merchants who traditionally ruled the city
-first of four social groups
grandi

#4 ch10
ch10

-second social group of florance
-emergent newly rich merchants
-capitalists and bankers
popolo grosso

#5 ch10
Ch10

-'little people'
-lower economic class
-1/3 of florence poulation
popola minuto

#6 ch10
ch10

-Cosimo de' Medici; controlled Florence
--tyranny, absolute power, ruler exercises absolute power
despotism

#7 ch10
ch10

-wealthiest Florentine; statesman; controlled city internally from behind scenes-manipulates constitution, elections
Cosimon de' Medici

# 8 ch10
ch10

-council finrst of 6 then of 8 that governed Florence
Signoria

# 9 ch10
ch10

-dominant groups hired strongman to prevent internal social conflict and foreign intrigue from paralyzing cities
-maintain law and order
-given executive, military, judical power
-mandate: permit normal flow of business activity without which no one couls long survive
podesta

#10 ch10
ch10

-military brokers that provided merchant armies
condottieri

#11 ch10
ch10

-Kristeller: no particular philosophy or value system but an educational program that concentrated on rhetorical and sound scholarship for their own sake
-was study of Latin and Greek classics and Church fathers
Humanism

#12 ch10
ch10

liberal arts program of study that embraced grammar, rhetorical poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy
studia humantitatis

#13 ch10
ch10

-help form cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature
Dante/ "Divine Comedy (3 books)"

#14 ch10
ch10

-also pioneer of humanists
-100 bawdy tales told by 3 men and 7 women in country retreat form plague
-stinging social commentary and sympathetic look at human behavior
-encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology
Giovanni Boccaccio/ "Decameron"

#15 ch10
ch10

-celebrated ancient Rome,
-fancied personal letters to Cicero, Livy, Virgil and Horace
-classical and christial values exist in his work
Petrarch/ "Letters to hte Ancient Dead"

#16 ch10
ch10

-illustrates that humanist learning not confined to classroom
-pratical guide for nobility at court Urbino; enbodied highest ideals of Italian humanism
-depicts successful courties as one who knew how to integrate knowledge of language, history with athletic, military, music, with good manners, high moral character
Baldassare Castiglioe/ "Book of the Courtier"

#17 ch10
ch10

-nobelwoman wh oplayed role in cout education and culture
-received fine education; became expert in classical, french/italian language and lit.
-chronical of accomplishments of the great women of history
Christine de Pisan/ "The City of Ladies"

#18 ch10
ch10

-not a formal school, but gathering of influencial Florintine humanists devoted to revival of works of Plate and Neoplationists
Florentine Academy

#19 ch10
ch10

-flattering view of human nature
-distinguished between eternal sphere of being and the perishable world in which humans lived
-human reason beleive dto belong to former
Platonism

#20 ch10
ch10

-platonic influence
-most famous Renaissance statement on anture of huma kind
-introduction to 900 theses intended to serve as basis for a public debate on life important topics
-depict humans as creatures who possesed freedom to do whatever
Pico Della Mirandola/ "The Oration of the Dignity of Man"

#21 ch10
ch10

-popular among protestants
-defense of predestination against the advocatd of free will
-exposed document purported to be grant of vast territories made by 4th century emperor
Lorenzo Valla/ "Donation of Constantine"

#22 ch10
ch10

-examples of humanist leadership of the political and culture life
civic humanism

#23 ch10
ch10

-father of Renaissance painting
-painted natural world; still filled woth religious seriousness, work was not abstract and unnatural
Giotto

#24 ch10
ch10

-sculpter; portrayed world more literally and naturaly
Donatello

#25 ch10
ch10

-true master of many skills
-great painter, military engineer, scientific experiments, anatomy, botanist
-mofern machines; convey emotions through facial expressions
Leonardo Da Vinci/ "Renaissane Man"

#26 ch10
ch10

-man of sensitivity and kind
-portrayal of great masters of western philosophy as a virtually perfect example of Renaissance technique
-depicts plato and aristotle surrounded by philosophers and scientists
Raphael/ "The School of Athens"

#27 ch10
ch10

-godlike sculpture; harmony, symmetry, proportion; emotion and dignity
-10,000 ft.; 4 yr. did all himself
Michelangelo/ "David and Sistine Chapel"

#28 ch10
ch10

-maintained internal cooperation adn safety from invasion
-brought Milan and Naples into alliance with Florence-stood for decades against Venice
1494: Treaty of Lodi

#29 ch10
ch10

-convinced most of Florence that the French king's arrival was a long delayed and fully justified divine vengance on their immorality
-revolutionized population and they exiled Piero
Girolamo Savonarola

#30 ch10
ch10

-Ferdinand hoped to expand his kingdom but found himself vulnerable to a French-Italian axis
-created___with Venice, Papal States, Maximilian against French
-set stage for conflict b/t France and Spain
The Holy League

#31 ch10
ch10

-succeeded Alexander VI
-suppressed Borgias and placed conquored lands Romagna under papal juristiction
-_____ b/c he brougt the Renaissance papacy to a peak of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue
Pope Julius II/ "the warrior pope"

#32 ch10
ch10

-humanists Erasmus, witnessed a bullfight in papal palace during visit to Rome
-wrote popular satire called
-described the popes unsuccessful efforts to convence Saint Peter that he was worthy of admission to Heaven
"Julius Excluded from Heaven"

#33 ch10
ch10

-French won it from Italy/Swiss when they invaded a 3rd time
-gave French king control over French clergy in exchange for French recognition of popes superiority over church councils and right to collect annates in France
-compromise helped keep France Catholic after Protestant Reformation
1516: Concordat of Bologna

#34 ch10
ch10

-humanist, impressed w/ way Romans rulers and citizens defended land; possesed virtu
-republican ideals
-The Prince
Niccolo Machiavelli

#35 ch10
ch10

-nobility and towns acted in degrees of unity and success by evolving representative assemblies to twart centralization of royal power
Cortes

#36 ch10
ch10

-nobility and towns acted in degrees of unity and success by evolving representative assemblies to twart centralization of royal power
French Estates General

#37 ch10
ch10

-rulers demonstrated that the law was their creature
-appointed civil servants whose vision was no longer merely local or regional
-royal ministers/ agents
corregidores

#38 ch10
ch10

salt tax
gabelle

#39 ch10
ch10

10% slaes tax om commercial transactions
alcabala

#40 ch10
ch10

-French kings independently determined year to year after Estates General suspended, was a tax on peasents through assemblies of priviliged classes
taille

#41 ch10
ch10

-developed Frenches strong economy
-independent merchant banker
-also, diplomatic corps, national administrationg during Chales reign
Jacques Coeur

#42 ch10
ch10

-union combinded two kingdoms
-subdue realm, secure borders, military, Christanize Spain
-total control pf Spanish church, overseas exploration
Ferdinand of Aragon/ Isabella of Castile

#43 ch10
ch10

-powerful league of cities and towns that served them against stubborn landowners
Hermandad

#44 ch10
ch10

Isabellas confessor
-ran letter and was key to national agency to monitor converted jews and muslims
-officer of the Inquisition
Tomas de Torquemada

#45 ch10
ch10

converted Jews
conversos

#46 ch10
ch10

converted Muslims
moriscos

#47 ch10
ch10

-following 100 yr war; england internal warfare b/t York and Lancaster
War of the Roses

#48 ch10
ch10

-sanctioned by pasliament; intended to end perversion of english justice by 'over might subjects'; powerful nobles who used intimidation to win favorable verdicts on cases
Court of the Star Chamber

#49 ch10
ch10

-established 7 member electoral college; group functioned as administratvie body
-elected emperor and provided transregional unity
-emperor and german rulers
1356: Golden Bull

#50 ch10
ch10

-control feuding
-7 electors, nonelectoral princes, and represent. from 65 imperial free cities
-imperial diet
Reichstag

#51 ch10
ch10

-created climate favorable to religious and educated reforms
-stimulated by Italian learning
-diverse social backgrounds, devoted religious reforms
northern humanist

#52 ch10
ch10

-invented printing with movable type
Johann Gutenberg/ printing press

#53 ch10
ch10

-most famous northern humainist; educational and religious reformer; tutoring; latin dialogues
Desiderius Erasmus

#54 ch10
ch10

-latin dialogues; intended to teach how to speak and live, manners, language
-published under
"Colloquies"

#55 ch10
ch10

-ancient and contemporary proverbs
-published under
-"leave no stone unterned"
-"where there is smoke there is fire"
"Adages"

#56 ch10
ch10

-Erasmus beliefs
-ethical piety in imataion of Christ
philosophia Christi

#57 ch10
ch10

-Christendoms Bible for over 1000 yr.
-Eramus made improvments on it
"Vulgate"

#58 ch10
ch10

-all Erasmus books on
"Index of Forbidden Books"

#59 ch10
ch10

-father of german humanism
-spent years in Italy and introduced Italian learnign to germany when returned
Rudolf Agricola

#60 ch10
ch10

-knight, gave german humanism a nationalist coloring hostile to non-german cultures, particularly Roman
Ulrich von Hutten

#61 ch10
ch10

-cause that brought von Hutten onto the historical stage and unified reform-minded gernam humanists
Reuchlin affair

#62 ch10
ch10

-english humanist
-Utopia
Thomas More

#63 ch10
ch10

-conservative critism of cntemporary society
-imaginary society based on readon and tolerance that overcame social and political injustice
Utopia

#64 ch10
ch10

-confessor to Isabella and Grand Inquistador-protestant reformation
-enfore religious orthodoxy
Jimenez de Cisneros

#65 ch10
ch10

-sponsor Portugese exploration of African coast-gold trade
Henry the Navigator

#66 ch10
ch10

-opened Portuguese Empire in East when rounded the Cape of Good Hope at tip of Africa
Bartholomeu Dias

#67 ch10
ch10

-reached coast of India, cargo brougt back worth 60 times as much
Vasco da Gama

#68 ch10
ch10

-showed new lands were not the outermost territory of Far East as columbus believed
-mosr on pacific ocean
-with Magella
Amerigo Vespucci

#69 ch10
ch10

-first globe map of world
-showed b/t west coast of Europe and east coast of Asia
Martin Behaim

#70 ch10
ch10

-today latin america
-from central mexico into Yucatan and Guatemala and South America
-earliest civilization the Olmec
Mesoamerica

#71 ch10
ch10

-much of meaoamerica dominated by
-largest urban center
-large cities, immense pyramids, math, astronomy
Teotihuacan/ Maya

#72 ch10
ch10

-subservant people until rebelled
-period of conquest
Aztecs

#74 ch10
ch10

capital of Aztec
-on island in lake
Tenochtitlan

#75 ch10
ch10

-landed on coast of Mexico with 600 men
-opened communication, initally believed to be God
-appease with gifts
-conquored capital
Hernan Cortes

#76 ch10
ch10

-conquered by spanish
-highlands of Peru
-did conquest, several million subjects, build roads, cities, farm, fight
Incas

#77 ch10
ch10

-sailed from Panama and landed of coast South America to campaign Inca Empire
Francisco Pizarro

#78 ch10
ch10

chief of Incas
-killed by Picarro
Atahualpa

#79 ch10
ch10

conquerors
conquistadors

#80 ch10
ch10

one-fifth of mining revenues
quinto

#81 ch10
ch10

persons originally born in Spain
peninsulares

#82 ch10
ch10

persons of Spanish descent born in America
creoles

#83 ch10
ch10

economy produced two major products: food for mining areas and urban and leather goods
hacienda

#84 ch10
ch10

formal grant of the right tothe labor of a specific number of Indians for a time period
encomiendo

#85 ch10
ch10

second labor servitude
-adult male Indians devote certain number of labor days annually to Spanich economic enterprises
-labor tax
repartimiento

#86 ch10
ch10

-free Indian laborers were required to purchase goods from the landowner or mine owner to whom they become indebted
debt peonage

#87 ch10
Ch10

-imposed interregional conformity during middle horizon
Huari-Tiahuanco

#73 ch10