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5 Cards in this Set

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Congress of Vienna
Time: 1815
Place: Austria
What:
· After Napoleon was defeated, the four great powers in Europe (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) agreed to meet at the Congress of Vienna to create a peace treaty
o They agreed not only to unite against France, but also to unite to keep the peace in Europe
o These powers also restored the Bourbon monarchy in France
· The Congress was led by Metternich who was the Austrian foreign minister
Significance:
· They decided that it was important to restore monarchies that would preserve traditional ideas (i.e. the old regime)
o This is important to them because Austria and the other powers (excluding GB) feared the anarchy that would come to their states from the new ideas of nationalism, etc. that were spread by Napoleon
§ The nobility would loose their power like the nobility in France
o Would keep the peace in Europe
o Did so in France, Spain and the Italian states
§ However, in less important countries, rulers were selected based on their power
· Poland was partially divided up between the powers, but it was promised its independence
o Ended up with its own foreign policy and king, but was under Russian control
· Attempted to re-form the balance of power in Europe to keep any country from dominating the territory (like France just had)
o Prussia and Austria were strengthened after Russia gained territory and power—prevent Russia attempting to take control of those states or France
· Feared another French attempt at domination
o France had not been weakened greatly by the Napoleonic wars
o The Congress created a larger Netherlands (made up of the Dutch Republic and Austrian Netherlands) and other smallish countries to keep France in check
o Germanic Confederation—new league of German States was created to replace the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine
o France was reduced to its boarders of 1790—lost territory
· The Congress of Vienna created harmony a balance of power that would prevent an entire Europe war for 100 years
Metternich
Time: 1773-1859
Place: Austria
Who:
· When the Quadruple Alliance of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia made the Concert of Europe to unite and ensure peace after Napoleon’s defeat
· Prince Klemens von Metternich, the Austrian foreign minister was the leader of the Congress of Vienna (which was the first meeting that the concert held)
o He was a diplomat who was very conceited and self-assured
· He said that his actions were guided by legitimacy and to reestablish peace and stability in Europe
o Wanted to restore monarchies in France, Spain, and Italian states
o However, they let Russia still control Poland’s foreign policy
· Sherm article (pg 150)
o Dislikes the sudden changes that revolutions cause à they don’t just take away the bad, but also the good
o The “presumptuous men” always want to change things
§ They have no morals, don’t want to obey, are arbitrary- make rash decisions, don’t value religion, and don’t value the past or tradition à BAD (obviously he thinks the opposite)
o Whoever’s in charge makes the laws and the people’s duties are to obey
o Morality is rooted in religion, not the enlightenment
Significance:
· His chief concern was to create a new Balance of power, and protect it from destruction
o He believed that nationalism was bad b/c it could restore all of the German states and/or break up all of Austria
o In order to create the new balance of power he strengthened Prussia and Austria to balance Russia and strengthened Netherlands to balance France
· He was very conservativeà wanted to preserve traditional views (keep the old regime
Edmund Burke
Time: 1729-1797
Place: France
Who (or what):
Ø One of the first known conservatives wrote a work called, Reflections on the Revolution in France in reaction to the French Revolution.
Significance:
Ø Burke believed that society was a contract.
o And the state can only be considered a partnership agreement, such as like a partnership in trade agreements. Actual quote p 582 in Jackson
§ Their partnership (state and generations of people) must be between the living, dead and those to be born.
· So really the state had a duty to be faithful to all generations and the generations as well must be faithful to them.
o The generations had a duty to preserve and transmit the partnership to the next.
Ø He was also strongly against the violent overthrow of the govn’t by revolution
o This did not make him personally against the idea of change
o Sudden change- not cool, but slow evolutionary change – right on (this was in my notes so remember this fact about the slow change)
Ø Another significance is the fact that the whole idea of conservatism came about to contain the liberal and national forces unleashed from the French revolution.
Adam Smith
When: 18th Century (Enlightenment)
Who:
- Scottish Philosopher
- Attacks Mercantilist ideas
- Protective tariffs à stupid, if one country makes better cheaper boots, BUY THEM
- FREE TRADE - fundamental
- Labor Theory of Value
- Labor of every individual determines the true wealth of a nation
- State should not interfere in government matters!
- Laissez - faire (non-interference)
- should only defend it from invasion
- defend people from injustice and oppression (have police)
- Keep up public works
- Because regular individuals could never afford them.
- Extra points from handout:
- Individuals should work freely
- Naturally benefit society even if they don't intend to
- Gov. intervention doesn't help anybody
- You can't force a person to work, they have to want to
- System of free trade = most benefits Britain
- Already ahead of the game (industrial revolution)
- need to dump their cotton underwear somewhere
- While other less industrial nations will become dependent
- "Not a level playing field"
- Economy operates on natural laws, once you get it going you can't do anything to change it.
Significance:
- LAID THE FOUNDATION for economic liberalism 100 years later.
- You don't have to do anything to help the poor.
- Entrepreneurs and industrial bourgeoisie benefit, and don't have to control hours or wages
- The workers (Proletariat) suffer
Thomas Malthus
Time: 1766 – 1834
Place: Europe
Information:
· Wrote Essay on the Principle of Population
· Argues that population grows faster then the increasing food supply
· “Many more people are born then can actually survive”
· There would be overpopulation and starvation
o But nature keeps the food to people ration even with a long list of misery and poverty
· Since nature has it under control, it is best not to interfere with it
o (encourages: no government intervention)

Significance:
· His ideas later influence David Ricardo