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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ionization Radiation
enought energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer.

Ex. gamma xra-UV
High Quality Energy
organized & concentrated, can perform useful work

Ex. Fossil Fuel & Nuclear
Low Quality Energy
disorganized, dispersed

(heat in ocean or air, wind, solar)
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy

(usually heat)
Natural Radioactive Decay
unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha and beta particles
the time it takes for 1/2 the mass of a radioisotope to decay
Estimation of radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to safe level
approximately 10 half-lives
Nuclear Fission
nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck b y neutrons
Nuclear Fusion
2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet.
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Organic Fertilizer
slow acting & long lasting because the organic remains need time to be decomposed
Best solution to Energy Shortage
Conservation and increase efficiency
Surface Mining
cheaper and can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)
perfect agricultural soil with equal portion of sand, silt, clay

allows the use of resources in a responsible manner

setting aside areas & protecting them from human activities
Parts of Hydrologic Cycle
evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
any water bearing layer in the ground
Cone of Depression
lowering of water table around a pumping well
Salt Water Intrusion
near the coast, overpumping of ground water causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
El Nino Southern Oscillation
see-sawing of air pressure over South Pacific
During El Nino Year
trade winds weaken & warm water slashed back to SA