Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/115

Click to flip

115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Noun
Names a person, place, thing, or idea.
Pronoun
Takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
Adjective
Modifies a noun or pronoun.
Verb
Expresses action or state of being.
Adverb
Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
Preposition
Shoes the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
Conjunction
Joins words or word groups.
Interjection
Expresses emotion.
Subject
Noun or noun substitute plus all modifiers that tells what the sentence is about.
Predicate
Verb or verb phrase plus all modifiers, compliments, and objects which tells or asks something about the subject.
Sentence
Independent grammatical unit containing subject and predicate and expressing a complete thought.
Phrase
Group of related words used as a single part of speech.
Clause
Group of related words containing subject and predicate.
Independent Clause
Can stand alone as a sentence.
Dependent Clause
Cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Parallelism
Elements of equal importance are presented in equal, grammatical form.
Antithesis
Strongly contrasting words, clauses, or sentences.
Juxtaposition
To place side by side for comparison or contrast.
Paradox
While seemingly contradictory, may be true or well founded.
Oxymoron
An antithesis of contiguous, contradictory terms.
Listing
A continutation of grammatically parallel items.
Transition
Linking paragraphs or ideas together.
Ellipsis
One or more words are omitted and supplied by the reader.
Asyndeton
Words or word phrases usually joind by conjunctions are separated only by commas.
Apposition
Noun or noun phrase, placed with another, as an explanatory equivalent.
Parenthesis
A comment which is an interuption of the immediate purpose.
Polyseyndeton
Placement of a conjunction after every term in a list.
Anaphora
The same expression is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.
Epistrophe
Repetition of the same word or expression at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Anadiplosis
Repitition at the beginning of a phrase, clause, or sentence of words of which the previous sentence ended.
Epanalepsis
Repetition at the end of a line phrase or clause of the word or word phrase.
Chiasmus
Reversing the order of repeated words or phrases.
Mono vs. Poly Syllabic
One syllable vs. many syllables.
Euphonious vs. Cacophonous
Pleasant sounding vs. harsh sounding.
Literal vs. Figurative
Accurate without imbellishment vs. comparison creating a pictorial effect.
Denotative vs. Connotative
Exact meaning vs. suggested meaning.
Objective vs. Subjective
Impersonal and unemotional vs. personal and emotional.
Active vs. Passive
States action vs. states being.
Concrete vs. Abstract
Specific and tangable vs. conceptual and philosophical.
Hyperbolic (overstated) vs. Understated
Deliberate exageration of facts vs. misrepresentation of less.
Pedestrian vs. Pedantic
Laymen's term vs. borish, inflated language.
Vulgarity
Language deficient in taste and refinement.
Slang
Vernacular speech. Tends to be from an originated group.
Jargon
Language specific to a field or profession.
Cliche
Language used so often it has lost its freshness.
Colloquial/dialect
Regional or provincial language.
Informal
Language that is correct but conversational.
Formal
Language of taste and refinement, appropriate for formal occasions.
Assonance
Repetition of similar vowel sounds in closely associated words.
Consonance
Repetition of similar consonant sounds in closely associated words.
Alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds in closely associated words.
Onomatopoeia
Words whose pronounciation suggest their meaning.
Rhetoric
Principles of rules governing the art of writing or speaking effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
Narration
Recounts an event or series of events.
Description
Sketches a portrait of a person, scene, or thing.
Exposition
Explains the nature of an object, idea, or theme.
Persuasion (2 types)
Argumentation- to change or reinforce opinion

Persuasion- to compel to action.
Autobiography/biography
An account of a persons life
Diary
A Daily record of personal events, observations, etc.
Letter/epistle
A literary composition in the form of a letter.
Essay
A short analytical or interpretive composition on a single subject.
Speech/sermon
A talk or public address (usually religious)
Example/illustration
Selected instances or extended examples to prove the validity of a point.
Narration
Chronological (In order of time)
Description
Has spacial organization and appeals the senses.
Comparison/contrast
Looks at similarities between seemingly unlike items.
Cause/effect
Effect then causes/cause then effect.
Analogy
An extended comparison between seemingly inlike items.
Classification/division
Grouping of items into a class then given enough details to distinguish it from other members of that class.
Anecdote
A short narrative detailing particulars of an interesting episode or event.
Digression/aside
Introduction of material unrelated or distantly related to the subject under discussion.
Concession
Something such as a point previously claimed that is later conceded.
Apostrophe
Someone or something not present is addressed as though present.
Analogy
A comparison of two things that are alike in certain respects.
Metaphor
A comparison between two dissimilar things.
Simile
A comparison using like or as.
Personification
Giving human characteristics to something nonhuman or animate characteristics to an inanimate object.
Synecdoche
Substituting the name of a part for a whole.
Metonymy
Substituting a term closely associated with the word meant.
Euphemism
An indirect is substitued for a direct one to avoid bluntness.
Pun
Word play based on similarity of sound in words of different meaning.
Allusion
Making casual reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event.
Images
Literary and concrete representations of sensory experiences.
Symbol
Something that is itself and stands for or suggests something larger.
Motif
The smallest literary unit that is stable across time and stories.
Archetype
An unconscience collective image.
Irony
The actual intent is expressed in words which carry the opposite meaning.
Litotes
An affirmative is expressed by negating the opposite.
Point of View
The vantage from which narrative is told.
Mood/atmosphere
The general feeling created by a work at a given point.
Shift
A change of mood or tine, etc.
Attitude
Situation + opinion.
Tone
The means by which the attitude is conveyed. Expresses the readers attitude.
Claim/assertion/proposition/thesis
Point you prove.
Subclaims
Subsidary to main claim.
Support/evidence
How you prove assertion.
Refutation
How you counter the opposing view.
Concession
Where you yield a point to the opposition.
Pathos
Attempt is to provoke an emotional response.
Logos
To evoke a rational response.
Ethos
Sense of sharing thouhgt (makes connection to audience)
Bathos
Pity plea.
Ad hominem
Attacking the person instead of the argument.
Ad populum
Appeal to people prejudices.
Ad verecundium
An appeal to wisdom in the sense that something said by a great person is true.
Non sequitur
Not in sequence; the conclusion does not follow logically from the preceding statement.
False analogy
A writer falsely assumes that if 2 things are alike in 1 respect, they are alike in others.
Post hoc
Because one thing follows another, the 1st is said to cause the 2nd.
Hasty/sweeping/over generalization
A conclusion based on insufficient or unrepresented evidence.
Begging the question
The truth of a conclusion is assumed by the premises.
False authority
Someone speaking outside their expertise.
Slippery slope
Something is wrong because it is next to something that is wrong or could slide toward it.
Equivocation
The meaning of the key word shifts.
Either/or reasoning
Suggesting that only 2 alternatives exist when there are more.
Smoke screen
Using prestigious jargon or gibberish.