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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abstract language
describing ideas and qualities rather than observable things (caring, beautiful)
active voice
subject performs the action (the boy grabbed his books)
ad hominem
writer personally attacks his or her opponents instead of their arguments
allegory
a story in which characters, things, and eevnts represent qualities or concepts - symbolic of ideas
alliteration
repition of initial identical consonant sounds
allusion
an indirect reference to something
ambiguity
an event that may be interpreted in more than one way
analgoy
a comparison to a directly parallel case, designed to teach (complex --> basic)
anaphora
repition of a wore, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row
anecdote
a brief recounting of a relevant episode
annotation
explanatory notes
antecedent
the wore, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun (what is the antecedent for "it"?)
antithesis
two opposite or contrastin words
aphorism
a terse statement which expresses a general truth or moral principle, summation of author's point
apostrophe
directly adresses an absent or imaginary person (Oh God!)
Appositive
a word placed beside a noun to substitute to supplement its meaning (Jim, the plumber, fixed it.)
Argumentation
to prove the validity of an idea by presenting good reasoning
assonance
repitition of a vowel sound
causal relationship
one thing results from another
clause
contains both a subject and a verb
colloquial
familiar type of conversation
colloquialism
familiar type of saying
complex sentence
at least one main clause and one subordinate clause
concession
accepting at least part of all of an opposing viewpoint, conceding
concrete language
describes specific, observable things
connotation
rather than the dictionary definition, implied meaning
consonance
repitition of a consonant sound
coordination
combinining sentences into one single sentence
deduction
moving from general statements to an inevitable conclusion (All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therfore, Socrates is mortal)
denotation
to signify or stand as a name for. explicit meaning of a word
description
to recreate, invent, or visually present a person place event or action using 5 senses
diction
word choice, different types and arrangements of words have significant effects on meaning
didactic
used to describe fiction, nonfiction, or poetry that teaches a specific lesson
ellipsis
deliberate omission of a word from prose done for effect

it was almost nightfall. the whole day (there was) rain, torrents of rain
epigraph
quotation or aphorism at the beginning of a literary work suggestive of theme
euphemism
a less offensive substitute for unpleasant words

physically challenged
explication
interpreting the meaning of a text
exposition
explain and analyze information by presenting an idea
false analogy
2 cases are not parallel to lead readers to accept a claim of connection
genre
major category into which a work fits into

prose, poetry, drama, lyric, dramatic, biography, criticism, essay, political
homily
"sermon" includes serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral advice
hyperbole
exaggerates - used for comedy or irony
induction
bring together pieces of evidence and arrive at a conclusion

i want new shoes. i have 5 pairs of Nikes and don't have foot problems. Therefore, i should buy Nike
interrogative sentences
what, which, who, whom, whose
invective
emotionally violent, verbal denunciation using abusive language
imperative
issues a command
verbal irony
when you say something and mean something different
dramatic irony
audience knows more that character
situational irony
found in the plot of a story.

Johnny spent 2 hours planing on sneaking in and missed the movie. We he did sneak in he found out kids were free today.
juxtaposition
placing things side by side for the purpose of comparison
loose sentence
complex sentence in which main clause comes first and subordinate follows

I do not wish to go to school, even though i might learn something.
mood
atmosphere created by literatre through word choice
non-sequitur
somethings that doesnt logically follow
onomatopoeia
figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in sounds of words

buzz, roar, gurgle
oxymoron
rhetorical antithesis

jumbo shrimp, wise fool
paradox
seemingly contradictory statement that is true

you cant get a job without experience, and you cant get experience without a job.
parallelism
repetition of structure in different words

it was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness

i came, i saw, i conquered

she looked tired, frustrated, and disgusted
parenthetical idea
paranthese are used to set off an idea from rest of the sentence
parody
exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes, pokes fun at
passive voice
subject of sentence receives the actions

the books were grabbed by pete
pedantic
observing strict adherence to formal rules or literal meaning at expense of a wider view
periodic sentence
main clause comes last
persona
fictional mask or narrator that tells a story
persuasive writing
arugmentation having additional aim of urging some form of action
predicate adjective
an adjective that follows a linking verb

my dog is fat, slow, and shaggy.
predicate nominative
a noun that renames the subject that follows a linking verb

my dog is a mutt with character. (mutt with character renames dog)
refutation
writes musteres relevant opposing arguments
repetition
reinforcing a point by repeating
rhetoric
art of effective communication
sarcasm
bitter comment this is ironically worded
satire
work that reveals critical attitude toward some element of life to a humorous effect
simple sentence
one independent clause
compound sentence
2 independent clauses, no dependent
complex sentence
1 independent and 1 dependent clause
balanced sentence
two parallel elements are set off against each other

if a free society cant help the many who are poor, it can't save the few who are rich.
simile
usage that compares

Like, as, if
style
choice in diction, tone, and syntax
subordination
less important ideas and placing them in dependent clauses.. focusing readers attention on main idea and placing it in independent clause

although he was tired and wet, bill was determined to get to school on time
subordinate clause
subject and a verb but can not stand alone

although, because, unless, even though
syllogism
deductive system of formal logic that presents 2 premises

All men are mortal
Socrates is a man
Therefore, Socrates is mortal
syntax
grammatical arrangement of words
vernacular
language or dialect of a certain country
anadiplosis
"doubling back" repetition of one or several words [repetition of a word that ends one clause at the beginning of a next]

men in great places are thrice servants: servants of the state; servants of fame.
anaphora
repetition of a word at the beginning of successive phrases

we shall not flag. we shall go on to the end. we shall fight in france
anastrophe
transposition of normal word order

the helmsman steered; the ship moved on; yet never a breeze up blew.

as not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country
antistrophe
repetition of same word or phrase at end of successive clause

in 1921, Japan invaded -without warning. In 1935, Italy invaded - without warning.
asyndeton
lack of conjunctions

we shall pay, bear any burden, meet hardships, support, oppose any foe to assure the survival.
cacophony
harsh joining of sounds

we want no parlay with you and your grisly gang who work your wicked will
chiasmus
2 corresponding pairds arranged not in parallels (a-b-a-b) but inverted order (a-b-b-a)

Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers always.
litotes
understatement, for intensification, by denying the contrary of the thing being affirmed

a few unannounced quizzes are inconceivable.

war is not healthy for children and other living things.
metonymy
substitution of one word for another which it suggests

he is a man of the cloth.
the pen is mightier than the sword
polysyndeton
repition of conjunctions
syllepsis
use of a word with 2 others, with each of which it is understood differently

we must all hang together or assuredly we will all hang separately
synecdoche
understanding one thing with another, part for the whole

US won three gold medals.
(instead of members of the US boxing team won..)
tautology
repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence

With malice toward none, with charity for all.
Zeugma
2 different words linked to a verb or adjective which is appropriate to only one of them

Nor mars his sword, nor war's quick fire shall burn the living record of your memory.