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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ethnic identity
cultural and social characteristics that distinguish one nation from another — especially in the minds of the members of the ethnic group
national identity
an institution that binds people together through a common set of political aspirations, among which the most important is self-government.
nation
a group of people who identify themselves as belonging together because of cultural, geographic, or linguistic ties
nationalism
aspirations for state independence and sovereignty; devotion to the interests of one’s culture, nation, or state; belief in the superiority of one’s culture, nation, or state
nation-state
a territorial unit controlled by a single state and governed by a single government
citizenship
an individual's or a group's relationship to the state; those who are citizens swear allegiance to that state, and that state in return is obligated to provide rights to those individuals or the members of that group.
patriotism
pride in one's state; people are patriotic when they have pride in their political system and seek to defend and promote it.
ethnic conflict
when different ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense.
national conflict
when one or more groups do develop clear aspirations for sovereignty, clashing with others as a result.
political attitudes
Describe views regarding the necessary pace and scope of change between freedom and equality. These are typically broken up into the categories of radical, liberal, conservative, and reactionary.
radical political attitude
believes in dramatic, often revolutionary change of the existing political, social, or economic order. Believes that the current system is broken and will only be improved when the entire political structure has been fundamentally transformed.
liberal political attitude
believe that progressive change can happen through changes within the system; it does not require an overthrow of the system itself.
conservative political attitude
they question whether any significant or profound change in existing institutions is necessary. Should too much change take place, the very legitimacy of the system might be undermines, destroying the basic values and norms that hold society together. Change will simply replace one set of problems with others, possible worse ones.
reactionary political attitude
seek to restore political, social, and economic institutions that once existed. Restoration of older values, a change back to a previous regime or state that they believe was superior to the current order.
moderate (pragmatic) political attitude
dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations.
political ideology
sets of political values held by individuals regarding the fundamental goals of politics. They are concerned with the ideal relationship between freedom and equality for all individuals and the proper role of political institutions in achieving or maintaining this relationship.
liberalism
ideology that favors a limited role of the state in people’s lives and emphasizes individual freedoms
communism
ideology that rejects the idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity for the majority. To eliminate exploitation, it advocates that the state control all economic resources in order to produce true economic equality for the community as a whole.
social democracy
a political philosophy centered on electoral politics, egalitarian social policies, and the creation of social welfare systems
fascism
ideology that favors a collective approach to human organization, rejects notion of equality; it rests on the idea that people and groups can be classified in terms of inferiority and superiority.
anarchism
ideology that rejects the notion of the state altogether. Believe that private property leads to inequality but opposed to the idea that the state can solve this problem.
fundamentalism
ideology that seeks to unite religion with the state, or rather, to make faith the sovereign authority.
liberal-democracy
form of representative democracy where elected representatives that hold the decision power are moderated by a constitution that emphasizes protecting individual liberties and the rights of minorities in society
theocracy
a combined religious and political ruler
political culture
the collection of history, values, beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, traditions, and symbols that define and influence political behavior within a nation- state