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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are all forms of matter composed of?
Chemical Elements
What elements make up about 96% of body mass?
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Hydrogen
What distinguishes the atoms of one element from those of another element?
The Atomic Number (number of protons?
What is the Mass Number of an atom?
The sum of its protons and neutrons.
What are atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons called?
Isotopes

Radioactive isotopes ae unstable and decay.
What is an atom that gives up or gains electrons?
Ion
What is a molecule?
Two of the same atoms that share electrons
What is a compound?
Atoms of two or more elements.
What is a free radical?
An electrically charged atom or group of atoms wit an unpaired electron in its outermost shell.

EXAMPLE: SUPEROXIDE (formed by the addition of an electron to an oxygen molecule.
What are chemical bonds?
Forces of attraction that hold atoms together.
How do chemical bonds form?
From gaining, losing, or sharing electrons in the valence shell.
When do Ionic Bonds form?
When the force of attraction between ions of opposite charge holds them together.
What happens in a covalent bond?
Atoms share pairs of valence electrons.

Covalent bonds may be single, double, or triple and either nonpolar or polar.
Describe the HYDROGEN BOND
An atom of HYDROGEN that forms a polar covalent bond with an OXYGEN atom or a NITROGEN atom may also form a weaker bond called a hydrogen bond, with an electronegative atom. The polar covalent ond causes the hydrogen atom to have a partial positive charge that attracts to the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms, often oxygen or nitrogen.
Describe Chemical Reactions.
When atoms combine with or break apart fom other atoms.

Starting Substances: Reactants

Ending: Products
What is Energy?
The capacity to do work.
What are the two principal types of energy?
POTENTIAL ENERGY (STORED)

KINETIC ENERGY (ENERGY OF MOTION)
ENDERGONIC REACTIONS
REQUIRE ENERGY (COUPLES WITH ATP)
EXERGONIC REACTIONS
RELEASE ENERGY (COUPLES WITH ATP)
What is ACTIVATION ENERGY?
The initial energy investment needed to start a reaction.
When are reactions more likely to occur?
When the concentrations and the temperatures of the reacting particles are higher.
What do catalysts do?
Accelerate chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.

Most catalysts in living organisms are protein molecules called ENZYMES.
Describe Synthesis Reactions:
Combination of reactants to produce larger molecules.

ANABOLIC and usually ENDERGONIC.
Describe Decomposition Reactions:
A substance is broken down into smaller molecules.

CATABOLIC and usually EXERGONIC
Describe Exchange Decomposition:
Involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms.
Descrive Reversible Reactions:
End products can revert to the original reactants.
Inorganic Compounds:
Small and usually lack CARBON
Organic Compounds:
ALWAYS CONTAIN CARBON
ALWAYS HAVE COVALENT BONDS
USUALLY CONTAIN HYDROGEN
WATER
MOST ABUNDANT SUBSTANCE IN THE BODY.
EXCELLENT SOLVENT AND SUSPENDING MEDIUM.
PARTICIPATES IN HYDROLYSIS AND DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS REACTIONS.
SERVES AS A LUBRICANT.
BECAUSE OF ITS MANY HYDROGEN BONDS, WATER MOLECULES ARE COHESIVE, WHICH CAUSES A HIGH SURFACE TENSION.
HAS A HIGH CAPACITY FOR ABSORBING HEAT AND A HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION.
Inorganic acids, bases, and salts
Dissociate into ions in water.

Acid - ionizes into hydrogen ions (H+) and anions and is a proton donor.

Bases - ionizes into cations and hydroxide ions (OH-) and all are proton acceptors.

Salt - ionizes into neither H+ nor OH-
What are mixtures?
Combinations of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds.

Solutions, colloids, and suspensions are mixtures with different properties.
What are two ways to express the concentration of a solution?
Percentage (mass per volume), expressed in grams per 100 mL of a solution.

Moles per liter. A mole (mol) is the amount in grams of any substance that has a mass equal to the combined atomic mass of all its atoms.
pH
7 represents neutrality

Values below 7 = Acidic
Above 7 = Alkaline
What is the normal pH of blood
7.35 - 7.45
What do Buffer Systems do?
Remove or add Protons (H+) to help maintain pH Homeostasis.
Describe the CARBONIC ACID-BICARBONATE Buffer System:
The bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) acts as a weak base and removes excess H+, and carbonic acid (H2CO3) acts as a weak acid and adds H+
Carbon
Four valence electrons bond COVALENTLY with other CARBON atoms to form LARGE MOLECULES of many different shapes. Attached to the CARBON SKELETONS of ORGANIC MOLECULES are functional groups that confer distinctive chemical properties.
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS REACTIONS
Small organic molecules are joined together to form LARGER MOLECULES.

WATER IS REMOVED
HYDROLYSIS
LARGE MOLECULES are broken down into smaller ones by the ADDITION OF WATER.
CARBOHYDRATES
Provide most of the chemical energy needed to GENERATE ATP.

May be MONOSACCHARIDES, DISACCHARIDES, OR POLYSACCARIDES.
LIPIDS
Diverse group of COMPOUNDS that include:
triglycerides (fats and oils)
phospholipids
steroids
eicosanoids.
TRIGLYCERIDES
PROTECT, INSULATE, PROVIDE ENERGY, AND ARE STORED.
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
ARE IMPORTANT CELL MEMBRANE COMPONENTS.
STEROIDS
ARE IMPORTANT IN CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE, REGULATING SEXUAL FUNCTIONS, MAINTAINING NORMAL BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL, AIDING LIPID DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION, AND HELPING BONE GROWTH
EICOSANOIDS (PROSTAGLANDINS AND LEUKOTRIENES)
MODIGY HORMONE RESPONSES, CONTRIBUTE TO INFLAMMATION, DILATE AIRWAYS, AND REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE.
PROTEINS
CONSTRUCTED FROM MANY AMINO ACIDS. THEY GIVE STRUCTURE TO THE BODY, REGULATE PROCESSES, PROVIDE PROTECTION, HELP MUSCLES CONTRACT, TRANSPORT SUBSTANCES, AND SERVE AS ENZYMES.
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF PROTEIN:
PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY, AND (SOMETIMES) QUATERNARY. VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND SHAPE ARE RELATED TO THEIR DIVERSE FUNCTIONS.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)& RIBONUCLEIC ACID:
NUCLEIC ACIDS CONSISTING OF NITROGENOUS BASES, FIVE-CARBON (PENTOSE SUGARS), AND PHOSPATE GROUPS.
DNA
IS A DOUBLE HELIX AND IS THE PRIMARY CHEMICAL IN GENES
RNA
TAKES PART IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE)
PRINICIPAL ENERGY-TRANSFERRING MOLECULE IN LIVING SYSTEMS. WHEN IT TRANSFERS ENERGY TO AN ENDERGONIC REACTION, IT IS DECOMPOSED TO ADENOSINE DIPHOSPATE (ADP) AND A PHOSPHATE GROUP.

ATP IS SYNTHESIZED FROM ADP AND A PHOSPHATE GROUP USING THE ENERGY SUPPLIED BY VARIOUS DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS, PARTICULARLY THOSE OF GLUCLOSE.