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### 47 Cards in this Set

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 How to find the energy of the electron of Hydrogen atom? E = (-2.178x10^-18)/ n^2 Joules n is the shell (principal quantum number) How to find the amount of electromagnetic radiation released when electrons jump to lower energy levels? ΔE = hv = hc/λ λ= wavelength of the radiation (0.0000001m = 100nm) h= 6.63x10^-34 joule-sec v= frequency of radiation c= 3.00x10^8 m/sec (speed of light) How to find the wavelength related to the momentum of teh particle? λ= h/mv Relationships to the Periodic Table EN (attract electron)to the right and up Atomic Radius to the left and down IN (remove electron)to the right and up Couloumb's Law ((-q)(+q))/r^2 q = magnitude of charges Trigonal Planar (degree/ hybridization) 120/ sp2 Tetrahedral (degree) -Pyramidal -Angular Bent 109.5 107 104.5 Trigonal bipyramidal 90, 120 How many significant figures does this number have? 1200.000 7 sig figs moles in comparison to gases mole = PV/RT (R = 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K) moles under STP (volume liters/(22.4 L/mol) at STP what is the temperature, the pressure in mmHg and liters occupied by 1 mol of gas? 273K or 0 C 760 mmHg 22.4 liters What is the total kinetic energy of a gas sample? KE =3/2nRT (8.31 joules/mol-K) What is the average kinetic energy of a single gas molecule? KE =1/2mv^2 m = kg mass of the molecule v= speed of the molecule( meters/sec) KE is measured in joules What is the gas constant for PV=nRT 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure Pa= Ptotal)(Xa) Xa = moles of gas A/ total moles of gas Ptotal = Pa+Pb+Pc.... Density of gas D = m/v Van der Waals Equation for Nonideal conditions nRT = (P + n^2a/v^2)(v − nb) R = 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K Graham's Law (average speed of a gas molecule at a given temperature) average speed of a gas molecule = square root of 3kT/m = square root of 3RT/M m= mass of gas in kg M= molecular weight of gas in kg/mol k = 1.38x10^-23 joule/K R= 8.31 Graham's Law for the rate of effusion the square root of (m1 / m2) = r2 / r1 m= molecular weight What is enthalpy change ΔH= ΣΔH products - ΣΔH reactants when bonds are formed, energy is released when bonds are broken, energy is absorbed What is heat capacity? Cp= ΔH/ΔT What is specific heat? Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the termperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius q=mcΔT What is entropy? The measure of the randomness of system What is Gibbs free energy change? if ΔG is negative, the reation is spontaneous if ΔG is 0, equilibrium is reached The relationship of spontaneity, enthalpy and entropy? ΔG= ΔH - TΔS (T in K) How to find the free energy change? ΔG = ΔG° + RTlnQ How to find the standard free energy change under equilibrium? ΔG° = - RTlnK k is equilibrium constant Hwo do you find the boiling point elecation when a solute is added to a solution? ΔT = ikbm i= Van't Hoff factor kb the boiling point constant for the solvent m- molality How can you calculate the molality? kg of solvent/ moles How do you find the freezing point depression? ΔT= ikfm i the van't hoff factor kg= the freezing point deprresiong constant for the solvent m= molality How do we observe the decrease in vapor pressure when solute is added to a solution? P =XP° P=vapor pressure of the solution P°= vapor pressure of the pure solvent X = the mole fraction of the solvent How can we calculate the osmotic pressure in atm? λ= MRTi How do we find the partial pressure constant using atmospheres as units? Kp = Kc(RT)^Δn Observe the equation: N2 +3H2 <--> 2NH3 ΔH°=-92.6kJ what happens when the volume is increased? the reaction procceds to the reverse reaction (increase V, more moles) Could you please possibly tell me what are the strong acids? HCl, HBR, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4 Could you please tell me which are the important strong bases that I would need to know? LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2 tell me about the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation pH= pKa + log[A-]/[HA] pOH = pKb + log [HB+]/[B] In a strong acid and strong base titration, what is the major relationship between pH and pKa @ half-equivalence point? they are equal First Order Rate Law ln[A]tln[A]o = -kt Half Life of first order ln2/k second order rate law 1/[A]t - 1/[A]o = kt half life of second order 1/k[A]o find relationship between voltage and spontaneity ΔG°= -nFE° E°= standard reaction potential Find the relationship between voltage and equilibrium E° = RT/nFlnK Find cell potential under nonstandard conditions when not under equilibrium Ecell= E°cell - (RT/nF)lnQ R = 8.31 Find the current I = q/t (charge over time)