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47 Cards in this Set

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How to find the energy of the electron of Hydrogen atom?
E = (-2.178x10^-18)/ n^2 Joules

n is the shell (principal quantum number)
How to find the amount of electromagnetic radiation released when electrons jump to lower energy levels?
ΔE = hv = hc/λ

λ= wavelength of the radiation (0.0000001m = 100nm)
h= 6.63x10^-34 joule-sec
v= frequency of radiation
c= 3.00x10^8 m/sec (speed of light)
How to find the wavelength related to the momentum of teh particle?
λ= h/mv
Relationships to the Periodic Table
EN (attract electron)to the right and up
Atomic Radius to the left and down
IN (remove electron)to the right and up
Couloumb's Law
((-q)(+q))/r^2
q = magnitude of charges
Trigonal Planar (degree/ hybridization)
120/ sp2
Tetrahedral (degree)
-Pyramidal
-Angular Bent
109.5
107
104.5
Trigonal bipyramidal
90, 120
How many significant figures does this number have?
1200.000
7 sig figs
moles in comparison to gases
mole = PV/RT (R = 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K)
moles under STP (volume
liters/(22.4 L/mol)
at STP what is the temperature, the pressure in mmHg and liters occupied by 1 mol of gas?
273K or 0 C
760 mmHg
22.4 liters
What is the total kinetic energy of a gas sample?
KE =3/2nRT (8.31 joules/mol-K)
What is the average kinetic energy of a single gas molecule?
KE =1/2mv^2
m = kg mass of the molecule
v= speed of the molecule( meters/sec)
KE is measured in joules
What is the gas constant for PV=nRT
0.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
Pa= Ptotal)(Xa)
Xa = moles of gas A/ total moles of gas
Ptotal = Pa+Pb+Pc....
Density of gas
D = m/v
Van der Waals Equation for Nonideal conditions
nRT = (P + n^2a/v^2)(v − nb)
R = 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K
Graham's Law (average speed of a gas molecule at a given temperature)
average speed of a gas molecule = square root of 3kT/m = square root of 3RT/M

m= mass of gas in kg
M= molecular weight of gas in kg/mol
k = 1.38x10^-23 joule/K
R= 8.31
Graham's Law for the rate of effusion
the square root of (m1 / m2) = r2 / r1

m= molecular weight
What is enthalpy change
ΔH= ΣΔH products - ΣΔH reactants
when bonds are formed, energy is released
when bonds are broken, energy is absorbed
What is heat capacity?
Cp= ΔH/ΔT
What is specific heat?
Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the termperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius
q=mcΔT
What is entropy?
The measure of the randomness of system
What is Gibbs free energy change?
if ΔG is negative, the reation is spontaneous
if ΔG is 0, equilibrium is reached
The relationship of spontaneity, enthalpy and entropy?
ΔG= ΔH - TΔS (T in K)
How to find the free energy change?
ΔG = ΔG° + RTlnQ
How to find the standard free energy change under equilibrium?
ΔG° = - RTlnK
k is equilibrium constant
Hwo do you find the boiling point elecation when a solute is added to a solution?
ΔT = ikbm
i= Van't Hoff factor
kb the boiling point constant for the solvent
m- molality
How can you calculate the molality?
kg of solvent/ moles
How do you find the freezing point depression?
ΔT= ikfm

i the van't hoff factor
kg= the freezing point deprresiong constant for the solvent
m= molality
How do we observe the decrease in vapor pressure when solute is added to a solution?
P =XP°
P=vapor pressure of the solution
P°= vapor pressure of the pure solvent
X = the mole fraction of the solvent
How can we calculate the osmotic pressure in atm?
λ= MRTi
How do we find the partial pressure constant using atmospheres as units?
Kp = Kc(RT)^Δn
Observe the equation:
N2 +3H2 <--> 2NH3 ΔH°=-92.6kJ
what happens when the volume is increased?
the reaction procceds to the reverse reaction
(increase V, more moles)
Could you please possibly tell me what are the strong acids?
HCl, HBR, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Could you please tell me which are the important strong bases that I would need to know?
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2
tell me about the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
pH= pKa + log[A-]/[HA]

pOH = pKb + log [HB+]/[B]
In a strong acid and strong base titration, what is the major relationship between pH and pKa @ half-equivalence point?
they are equal
First Order Rate Law
ln[A]tln[A]o = -kt
Half Life of first order
ln2/k
second order rate law
1/[A]t - 1/[A]o = kt
half life of second order
1/k[A]o
find relationship between voltage and spontaneity
ΔG°= -nFE°

E°= standard reaction potential
Find the relationship between voltage and equilibrium
E° = RT/nFlnK
Find cell potential under nonstandard conditions when not under equilibrium
Ecell= E°cell - (RT/nF)lnQ

R = 8.31
Find the current
I = q/t (charge over time)