Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
47 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
How to find the energy of the electron of Hydrogen atom?

E = (2.178x10^18)/ n^2 Joules
n is the shell (principal quantum number) 

How to find the amount of electromagnetic radiation released when electrons jump to lower energy levels?

ΔE = hv = hc/λ
λ= wavelength of the radiation (0.0000001m = 100nm) h= 6.63x10^34 joulesec v= frequency of radiation c= 3.00x10^8 m/sec (speed of light) 

How to find the wavelength related to the momentum of teh particle?

λ= h/mv


Relationships to the Periodic Table

EN (attract electron)to the right and up
Atomic Radius to the left and down IN (remove electron)to the right and up 

Couloumb's Law

((q)(+q))/r^2
q = magnitude of charges 

Trigonal Planar (degree/ hybridization)

120/ sp2


Tetrahedral (degree)
Pyramidal Angular Bent 
109.5
107 104.5 

Trigonal bipyramidal

90, 120


How many significant figures does this number have?
1200.000 
7 sig figs


moles in comparison to gases

mole = PV/RT (R = 0.0821 Latm/molK)


moles under STP (volume

liters/(22.4 L/mol)


at STP what is the temperature, the pressure in mmHg and liters occupied by 1 mol of gas?

273K or 0 C
760 mmHg 22.4 liters 

What is the total kinetic energy of a gas sample?

KE =3/2nRT (8.31 joules/molK)


What is the average kinetic energy of a single gas molecule?

KE =1/2mv^2
m = kg mass of the molecule v= speed of the molecule( meters/sec) KE is measured in joules 

What is the gas constant for PV=nRT

0.0821 Latm/molK


Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure

Pa= Ptotal)(Xa)
Xa = moles of gas A/ total moles of gas Ptotal = Pa+Pb+Pc.... 

Density of gas

D = m/v


Van der Waals Equation for Nonideal conditions

nRT = (P + n^2a/v^2)(v − nb)
R = 0.0821 Latm/molK 

Graham's Law (average speed of a gas molecule at a given temperature)

average speed of a gas molecule = square root of 3kT/m = square root of 3RT/M
m= mass of gas in kg M= molecular weight of gas in kg/mol k = 1.38x10^23 joule/K R= 8.31 

Graham's Law for the rate of effusion

the square root of (m1 / m2) = r2 / r1
m= molecular weight 

What is enthalpy change

ΔH= ΣΔH products  ΣΔH reactants
when bonds are formed, energy is released when bonds are broken, energy is absorbed 

What is heat capacity?

Cp= ΔH/ΔT


What is specific heat?

Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the termperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius
q=mcΔT 

What is entropy?

The measure of the randomness of system


What is Gibbs free energy change?

if ΔG is negative, the reation is spontaneous
if ΔG is 0, equilibrium is reached 

The relationship of spontaneity, enthalpy and entropy?

ΔG= ΔH  TΔS (T in K)


How to find the free energy change?

ΔG = ΔG° + RTlnQ


How to find the standard free energy change under equilibrium?

ΔG° =  RTlnK
k is equilibrium constant 

Hwo do you find the boiling point elecation when a solute is added to a solution?

ΔT = ikbm
i= Van't Hoff factor kb the boiling point constant for the solvent m molality 

How can you calculate the molality?

kg of solvent/ moles


How do you find the freezing point depression?

ΔT= ikfm
i the van't hoff factor kg= the freezing point deprresiong constant for the solvent m= molality 

How do we observe the decrease in vapor pressure when solute is added to a solution?

P =XP°
P=vapor pressure of the solution P°= vapor pressure of the pure solvent X = the mole fraction of the solvent 

How can we calculate the osmotic pressure in atm?

λ= MRTi


How do we find the partial pressure constant using atmospheres as units?

Kp = Kc(RT)^Δn


Observe the equation:
N2 +3H2 <> 2NH3 ΔH°=92.6kJ what happens when the volume is increased? 
the reaction procceds to the reverse reaction
(increase V, more moles) 

Could you please possibly tell me what are the strong acids?

HCl, HBR, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4


Could you please tell me which are the important strong bases that I would need to know?

LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2


tell me about the HendersonHasselbalch Equation

pH= pKa + log[A]/[HA]
pOH = pKb + log [HB+]/[B] 

In a strong acid and strong base titration, what is the major relationship between pH and pKa @ halfequivalence point?

they are equal


First Order Rate Law

ln[A]tln[A]o = kt


Half Life of first order

ln2/k


second order rate law

1/[A]t  1/[A]o = kt


half life of second order

1/k[A]o


find relationship between voltage and spontaneity

ΔG°= nFE°
E°= standard reaction potential 

Find the relationship between voltage and equilibrium

E° = RT/nFlnK


Find cell potential under nonstandard conditions when not under equilibrium

Ecell= E°cell  (RT/nF)lnQ
R = 8.31 

Find the current

I = q/t (charge over time)
