Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/171

Click to flip

171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the major function of the respiratory system?
to supply the body w oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
What are (4) things needed if respirtaion is going to happen?
(1)pulmonary ventilation (2)external respiration (3)transport of respiraotory gases (4) internal respiration
What is pulmonary ventilation?
is the movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases there are continousaly changed and refreshed
NAME
is the movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases there are continously changed and refreshed
pulmonary ventilation
What is external respiration?
is the movement of Oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbone dioxoide from the blood to the lungs
nAME
is the movement of Oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxoide from the blood to the lungs
external respiration
What is the transport of respiratory gases?
is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body and of CO from the tissue cells of the lungs
NAME
is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body and of CO from the tissue cells of the lungs
transport of respiratory gases
How is the transport of respiratory gases accomplished?
by the cardiovascular system using blood as the transporting fluid
NAME
this is accimplished by the cardiovascular system using blood as the transporting fluid
transport of respiratory gases
What is internal respiration?
is the movement of O2 from blood to tissue cells and of CO from tissue cells to the blood
NAME
this is the movement of O2 from the blood to tissue cells and of CO from tissue cells to the blood
internal respirtaion
What are the two roles that the respiratory system has to take on? (2)
(1)pulmonary ventilation (2)external respiration
What are the parts of the respiratory sytem?
(1)nose (2)nasal cavity (3)pharynx (4)larnyx (5)bronchi (6)lungs (7)alveoli
NAME
its parts include the nose, nasal cavity, the paharynx, larnyx, bronchi, lungs, and alvioli
respiratory system
T or F
the respiratory and the circulatory system are highly coupled
true
What are alveoli?
are terminal air sacs found in the lungs
NAME
this are terminal air sacs found in the lungs
alveoli
What are the (2) zones of the respirartory system?
(1)respiratory zone (2)conducting zone
NAME
this consists of two zones, the respiratory zone and the conducting zone
the respiratory system
What is the respiratory zone?
is the actual site of gas exchange
nMAE
this is the actual site of gase exchange
respiratory zone
What makes of the respiratory zone? (3)
(1)broncioles (2)alveolar ducts (3)alveoli
NAME
this consists of the broncioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
the respiratory system
What is the conducting zone?
its respiratory passages provide fairly rigid conduits for air to reach the gas exchange sites
NAME
its respiratory passages provide fairly rigid conducts for air to reach the gas exchange sites
conducting zone
What is another role of the conducting zone?
its organs also cleanse, humidify, and warm incoming air
NAME
its organs also cleanse, humidigy, and warm incoming air
conducting zone
NAME
this is the only externally visbile part of the respiratory system
nose
What are the functions of the nose? (5)
(1)provides an airway for respiration (2)moistens and warms entering air (3)filters an d cleans inspired air (4)serves as a resonating chamber of speech (5)houses smell receptors
NAME
its functions include provides an airway for entering air, moistens and warms entering air, filters and cleans inspired air, serves as a resonating chamber for speech, and houses the smell receptors
nose
What are the two parts that divide the nose structurally?
(1)external nose (2)internal nasal cavity
NAME
this is divided into two parts: the external nose and the internal nasal cavity
nose
NAME
this is the area btwn the eyebrows
the bridge
What is the bridge?
the area btwn the eyebrows
What is the apex?
the tip of the nose
NAME
this is the tip of the nose
apex
What are the nostrils?
are the external openings of the nose
NAME
these are the external openings of the nose
nostrils
Why do noses vary a great deal in size and shape?
bc of differs in nasal cartilage
During breathing, air enters the cavity by passing through (1)
the nostrils
How does air enter the nasal cavity?
through the nostrils
What divides the nasal cavity in the middle?
nasal spetum
What is the nasal spetum?
is a midline that divides the nasal cavity
the roof of the nasal cavity is formed by the (1) and (2)of the skull
(ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull
What is the palate?
forms the floor of the nasal cavity and seperates the nasal caivty from the oral cavity below
NAME
this forms the floor of the nasal cavity and also seperates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity below
the palate
What is the hard palate?
is supported by the maxillary processes and the palatine bones
nAME
this is suppored by the maxillary processes and the palatine bones
hard palate
What are two types of palate?
(1)hard (2)soft
What is the soft palate?
is the unsupported portion
NAME
is the unsupported portion
soft palate
What is the differ btwn the hard palate and the soft palate?
(1)hard palate- is supported by the maxillary processes and the palatine bone (2)soft palate- is the unsupported part
What is the vestibule/
is the part of the nasal cavity tha is lined w sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair folliles
NAME
this is the part of the nasal caivty that is lined w sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous hair folliles
vestibule
What are vibrissae?
are hairs that filter coarse particles such as dust from inspired air
NAME
these are hiars that filter coarse particles such as dust from inspired air
vibrissae
What are (2) types of mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity?
(1)olfactory mucosa (2) the respirator mucosa
What is the olfactory mucosa?
contains smell receptors
NAME
this contains smell receptors
olfactory mucosa
What is the respiratory mucosa?
is pseudostrafied cilated columnar epithelia tissue that contains goblet cells, mucous, and serous glands
NAME
this is pseudostrafied cilated columnar epithelia tissue that contains goblet cells, mucous, and serous glands
respiratory mucosa
Each day the mucous and serous glands secrete about a quart of (1)
lysozyme
The epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa also secrete (1)
defensins
What are defensins?
are natural antibiotics that help to get rid of invading microbes
NAME
are natural antibiotics that help tp get rid of invading microbes
defensins
(1) can create currents that move contaminated mucus posteriorly toward the throat
the cilated cells of the respirtatory mucusoa
Explain why you might have a runny nose on a cold day
bc water vapor in expired air tends to condense at lower temp
How does the noise expel irratants?
by a sneeze can force air outward w a violent burst
Why are nose bleed often common?
bc of the abdunanace and superficial location of blood vessels
What are (3) scroll like mucosa cover projections found in the nasal cavity?
(1)superior conchae (2)middle conchae(3)inferior conchae
What are some of the functions of nasal mucosa and conchae?
function during heat, filter, and moisten the air (2)reclaim heat and moisture
inhaled air cools the (1) then during exhalation those cooled (1) preceptiate and moisture and extract heat from the humid air flowing over them
conchae
inhaled air (1) the conchae then during exhalation those cooled conchae (2)
(1)cools (2)preceptiate and moisture and extract heat from the humid air flowing over them
NAME
these help tp reclaim heat and moisture
conchae
What helps us to survive during dry and cold climates?
the reclamation mechanisms that minizme the amout of moisture and heat lost from the body
The nasal cavity is surrounded by a ring of (1)
paranasal sinuses
The (1) is surrounded by a ring of paranasal sinuses
nasal cavity
NAME
these help to lighten the skull and together w the nasal cavity warm and moisten the air
paranasal sinuses
What is rhinitis?
is the inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by excessive mucus production, nasal congestion, and postnasal drip
NAME
this is the inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by excessive mucus production, nasal congestion, and postnasal drip
rhinitis
T or F
bc the sinsus wrap around the nasal caivty, rhinitis can often cause sinustis by the bacteria spreads to the sinuses
true
What is sinusitis?
inflamed sinuses
NAME
this refers to inflamed sinuses
sinusitis
What causes a sinus headache?
when the passageways connecting the sinuses to the nasal caivty are blocked w mucus or infectious material and the air in the sinus cavities is absorbed
NAME
this will result if the passageways connecting the sinuses to the nasal caivty are blocked w mucus or infectious material and the air in the sinus cavities is absorbed
sinus headahce
What is the pharnyx?
refers to the throat
NAME
this refers to throat
pharynx
What are the (3) regions of the pharynx?
(1)nasopharynx (2)oropharynx (3)laryngopharynx
NAME
this has three regions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and larynogpharynx
pharynx
What is the nasopharynx?
serves only as an air passageway
NAME
this serves only as an air passageway
nasopharynx
What happens when you swallow?
the soft palate and the uvula move superioly to closes off the nasopharynx and prevents food from entering the nasal cavity
What prevents food from entering the nasal cavity?
the soft palate and the uvula move superiorly to close off the nasopharynx and prevents food from entering the nasal cavity
the (1) and (2) move superioly to close off the nasopharynx so that food does not enter the nasal cavity
(1)soft palate (2)uvula
The soft palate and the uvula move superiorly to close off the (1) so that food does not enter the nasal cavity
nasopharanyx
What kind of tissue does the nasopharynx have?
ciliated pseudostrafied eptihelia that takes over the job of propelling mucus where the nasal mucusoa leaves off
NAME
this has ciliated pseudostrafied epithelia that takes over the job of propelling mcus where the nasal mucuosa leaves off
nasopharynx
What kind of tissue does the pharynx have?
(1)the muscualar portion has skeletal muscle (2)its cellular portion of its mucosa differs from one region to another
NAME
its muscualr portion has skeletal muscle and its cellular portion of its mucosa differs from one region to another
pharynx
the pharyngeal tonsil is also called the (1)
adenoids
(1) the is also called the adenoids
pharyngeal tonsil
NAME
this contains the adenoids
nasopharynx
The nasopharynx has the (1)
adenoids
T or F
when the adenoids are enlarged speech and sleep may be disturbed
true
the auditory tubes are also called the (1)
pharyngotympanic tubes
the (1) are also called pharyngotmapanic tubes
auditory tubes
What are the pharyngotympanic tubes?
drain the middle ear cavities and allow the middle ear presssure to equalize w atomspheric pressure
NAME
this drains the middle ear cavities and allows the middle ear pressure to equalize w atompsheric pressure
pharyngotympanic tubes
What is the tubal tonsil?
help to protect the middle ear against infections likely to spread from the nasopharynx
NAME
these help to protect the middle ear against infections likely to spread from the nasopharynx
tubal tonsil
What is the oropharynx?
is continous w the archway called fauces and both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through it
NAME
it is continous w the archway called fauces and both swallowed food inhaled air pass through it
oropharynx
What kind of tissue does the oropharynx have?
stratified squamous epithelia
What kind of tissue does the laryngopharynx have?
stratifed squamous epithelia
What are (2)kinds of tonsils tha t can be found embeded in the oropharynx?
(1)palatine tonsils (2)lingual tonsil
NAME
this has the palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsils
oropharynx
What is the palatine tonsils?
found in the oropharynx and lie in the lateral walls of the fauces
NAME
these can be found in the oropharynx and lie in the lateral walls of the fauces
palatein tonsils
What are the fauces?
is an archway tha the oropharynx is continous w
NAME
this an archway that the oropharynx is continous w
fauces
What is the lingual tonsil?
covers the base of the tongue
NAME
this covers the base of the tongue
lingual tonsil
What is the larynopharynx?
serves as the passageway for food and air and is lined w stratifed squamous epithlia
NAME
this serves as the passageway for food and air and is lined w stratifed squamous epithilia
larynopharynx
What kind of tissue does the larynopharyx have?
stratifed squamous epithlia
What is larynx?
is your voice box
NAME
this is your voice box
larynx
The larynx superiorly attaches to the (1)
hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx
What are the (3) functions of the larynx?
(1)to provide a open airway (2)to act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channel (3)voice production
NAME
its functions include to provide an open airway, to act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the prope channel (3)voice production
larynx
What is the make up of the larynx like?
it is nine cartilages connected by membranes and ligmants
nAME
this is nine cartilges connected by membranes and ligmants
larynx
What kind of cartilage makes up the larynx?
except for the epiglottis, all larngeal cartilages are hyaline cartilages
NAME
this has all largenal cartilages are hyaline cartilages except the epiglottis
larynx
What is the adams apple?
refers to the laryngeal prominence in the larynx
NAME
this refers to the laryngeal prominence in the larynx
adams apple
What is the epiglottis?
is composed of mostly elastic cartilage and is almost entierly covered by mucosa containg taste buds
NAME
this is composed of mostly elastic cartilage and is almost entirley covered by mucosa containg taste buds
epiglottis
What kind of tissue does the epiglottis have?
elastic cartlage
What does the epiglottis do?
helps to keep food out of the lower respiratory passages
NAME
this helps to keep food out of the lower respiratory passages
epiglottis
NAME
this has been called the guardian of passageways
epiglottis
Why should liquids not be used when attempting to revive a person?
bc the protecive reflex of the epiglottis does not work when we are unconsicus
What are vocal cords?
are pearly white and vibrate producing sounds as air rushes up from the lungs
NAME
this are pearly white and vibrate producing sounds as air rushes up from the lungs
vocal cords
What are the vestibular folds?
help to close the glottis when we swallow
NAME
this help to close the glottis when we swallow
vestibular folds
The vestibular folds are also called the (1)
false vocal cords
(1) are also called the false vocal cords
vestibular cords
T or F
the vestibular cords play a part in sound production
false
Do the vestibular cords play a part in sound production?
no
What is the glottis/
is the medial opening btwn the vocal cords through which air passes through
NAME
is the medial opening btwn the vocal cords through which air passes through
glottis
NAME
this involves the intermitten release of expired air and the opening and closing of the glottis
specch
Speech involves the intermitten release of (1) and the (2)
(1)expired air (2)the opening and closing of the glottis
As the (1)and (2) of the vocal cords changes, the pitch of the sound varies
(1)length (2)tension
As the length and tension of the vocal cords changes, the (1)of the sound varies
pitch
Generally the (1)the faster they vibrate and the higher the pitch
tenser the cords
Generally, the tenser the cords, the faster they (1)
vibrate and the higher the pitch
What does the loudness of the voice depend on?
the force at which the airstream rushes across the vocal cords
T or F
the vocal cords move when we whispher
false
do the vocal cords move when we whispher?
no
When do the vocal cords vibrate vigorously?
when yell
What is laryngitis?
is the inflammtion of the vocal cords
NAME
is the inflammation of the vocal cords
laryngitis
What does laryngitis cause?
caues the vocal folds to swell, interfering w thier vibration
NAME
this causes the vocal folds to swell interfering w thier vibrations
laryngitis
T or F
unders some conditions the vocal folds act as a sphincter to prevent air passage
true
What is Valsalva's maneuver?
is when the vocal folds act as a sphincter to prevent air passage

(2)for example, this can helps to empty the rectum and can also splint the body trunk when one lifst a heavy load
NAME
is when the vocal folds act as a sphincter to prevent air passage
for example, this can helps to empty the rectum and can also splint the body trunk when one lifst a heavy load
Valsalva's movement