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215 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How big is the heart?
arpoximately the size of your fist
Where is the heart located? (4))
(1)superior surface of the diapragm (2)left of the midline (3)aneterior to the vertberal colummn (4)posterior to the sternum
NAME
is located superior to the diaphgram
heart
NAME
is located left of the midline
the heart
NAME
is located anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum
heart
What is the pericardium?
is a double walled sac around the heart
NAME
is a double walled sac around the heart
pericardium
What is the pericardium composed of? (2)
(1)a superifical fibrous pericardium (2)a deep two layer serous pericardum
NAME
is composed of a superficial fibrous pericardium and a deep two layer serous pericardium
pericardium
What are the two layer of the serous part of the pericardium?
(1)parietal layer (2)visceral layer
NAME
has two layer the parietal and the visceral layer
the serous pericardium
What is the parietal layer? (2)
(1)lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
NAME
lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
parietal layer
What is the visceral layer?
lines the surface of the heart
NAME
lines the surface of the heart
visceral layer
(1)layer is also called the epicardium
visceral
the visceral layer is also called the (1)
epicardium
What separates the visceral layer from the parietal layer of the serous pericardium?
a fluid filled pericardial cavity
a fluid filled pericardial cabity serparates (1) and (2) of the serous pericardium
(1)visceral layer (2)parietal layer
What are (3) functions of the pericardium?
(1)protects and anchors the heart (2)prevents overfilling of the heart w blood (3)allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction free environment
NAME
protects and anchors the heart
pericardium
NAME
prevents overfilling of the heart w blood
pericardium
NAME
allows for the heart to work in a relatively friction free environment
pericardium
What are the parts that make up the heart wall ?(4)
(1)epicardium (2)myocardium (3)fibrous skeleton of the heart (4)endocardium
What is the epicardium?
is a visceral layer of teh serous pericardium
NAME
is a visceral layer of the serous pericardium
epicardium
What is the myocardium?
cardiac msucle layer forming the bulk of the heart
NAME
is the cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart
myocardium
What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart?
crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue
NAME
is a crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue
fibrous skeleton of the heart
What is the endocardium?
is an endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface
is an endothelial layer of the inner myocardial surface
endocardium
What are some major blood vessels that return blood to the heart? (2)
(1)superior and inferior venae cavae (2)right and left pulmonary vien
NAME
exs include superior and inferior venae cavae and right and left pulmonary vien
2 major blood vessels that return blood to the heart
What are two major blood vessels that convey blood away from the heart? (2)
(1)pulmonary trunk (2)ascending aorta
NAME
examples include pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta
2 major blood vessels that convey blood to away from the hear
What are is pulmonary trunk?
splits into right and left pulmonary arties
NAME
splits into right and left pulmonary arties
pulmonary trunk
What is the ascending aorta?
is made up of three branches
NAME
is made up of three branches
ascending aorta
What are the three branches of the ascending aorta? (3)
(1)brachiocephalic (2)left common carotid (3)subclavian arteries
NAME
has three branches the brachiocephalic, common carotid, and subclavian arteries
ascending aorta
What are the major veins that supply and drain the heart? (3)
(1)small cardiac (2)anterior cadriac (3)great cardiac viens
NAME
examples include the small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and the great cardiac veins
the major viens that supply and drain the heart
What are the major arteries that supply and drain the heart? (4)
(1)right and left coronary (2)marginal (3)circumflex (4)anterior interventricular arteries
NAME
examples include right and left coronary, marginal, circumflex, and anterior interventricular artiries
the major arteries that supply and drain the heart
What is the atria?
are the receving chambers of the heart
NAME
are the recieving chambers of the heart
artia
Each atrium has a (1)
protruding auricle
Each (1) has a protruding auricle
atrium
NAME
each of these has a protuding auricle
protruding auricle
(1)mark atrial walls
pectinate muscles
Pectinate muscles mark (1)
atrial walls
Describe the flow of blood in the atria of the heart? (2)
(1)blood enters the right atria from the supior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus (2)blood enters the left atria from the pulmonary veins
Blood enters the (1) from the superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus
right atria
Blood enters the right atria from the (1)
superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus
Blood enters the (1) from pulomary viens
left atria
Blood enters the left atria from the (1)
pulomanry viens
Describe the flow of the blood through the lungs?
right atrium → tricsupid valve → right ventricle → pulmanry sumilunar valve → pulmanary arteries → lungs
Describe the flow of blood through the heart?
lungs → pulmonary viens → left atrium → bicuspid valve → left ventricle → aortic semiulnar → aorta → systematic circulation
BLOOD FLOW GOES
(1) → tricsupid valve → right ventricle → pulmonary sumilunar valve → pulmonary arteries → lungs
right atrium
BLOOD FLOW GOES
right atrium → (2) tricsupid valve → right ventricle → pulmonary sumilunar valve → pulmonary arteries → lungs
tricsupid valve
BLOOD FLOW GOES
right atrium → tricuspid valve → (1) → pulmonary arteries → lungs
pulmonary semilunar valve
BLOOD FLOW GOES
right atrium → triscuspid valve → pulmonary semilunar valve → (1)→ lungs
pulmonary arteries
BLOOD FLOW GOES
right atrium → triscupsid valve → pulmonary semilunar valve → pulmonary arteries → (1)
lungs
BLOOD FLOW GOES
(1)→ pulmonary viens → left atrium → bicuspid valve → left ventricle → aortic semilunar valve → aorta → systemtic circulation
lungs
BLOOD FLOW GOES
lungs → (1)→ left atrium → bicuspid valve → left ventricle → aotric semilunar valve → aorta → systemtic circulation
pulmonary viens
BLOOD FLOW GOES
lungs → pulmonary viens → (1) bicuspid valve → left ventricle → aotric semilunar valve → aorta → systemtic circulation
bicuspid valve
BLOOD FLOW GOES
lungs → pulmonary viens → bicsupid valve → (1) → aotric similunar valve → aorta → systemtic circulation
left ventricle
BLOOD FLOW GOES
lungs → pulmonary veins → bicuspid valve → left ventricle → (1) → aorta → systemtic circulation
aortic semilunar valve
BLOOD FLOW GOES
lungs → pulmonary viens → bicuspid vlave → left ventricle → aortic semilunar valve → (1)→systematic cicrulation
aorta
BLOOD FLOW GOES
lungs → pulmonary viens → bicuspid vlave → left ventricle → aortic semilunar valve → aorta → (1)
systematic cicrulation
What are vestricles?
are the discharging chambers of the heart
NAME
are the discharging chamebers of the heart
vestricles
(1) and (2) mark ventricular walls
(1)papilary muscles (2)traveculae carnae muscles
Papilary muscles nad traveculae carnae muscles mark the (1)
ventricular wall
What muscles mark the ventricular wall? (2)
(1)papillary muscles (2)trabeculae carnae muscles
What muscle marks the atrial walls?
pectinate muscle
(1) pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
right ventricle
NAME
pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
right ventricle
the right ventricle pumps blood into the (1)
pulmonary trunk
NAME
pumps blood into the aorta
left ventricle
The left ventricle pumps blood into the (1)
aorta
(1) pumps blood into the aorta
left ventricle
What is coronary circulation?
is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself
NAME
is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself
coronary circulation
NAME
ensures blood delivery to the heart even if major vessels are occulded
collateral routes
Collateral routes ensure (1)
blood delivery to heart
T or F
ensure blood delivery to the heart except if major vessels is occluded
false
Heart valves ensure (1)
unidirectional blood flow through the heart
NAME
ensures unidirectional blood flow through the heart
heart valves
What does AV stand for?
atrioventricular valves
Where do AV lie?
btwn the atria and the ventricles
NAME
lies btwn the atria and the ventricles
AV
What do the AV do?
prevents backflow into the artia when ventricle contract
NAME
prevents backflow into the artia when ventricles contract
AV
What keeps AV valves anchored to papillary muscles?
chordae tendicnae
NAME
anchor AV valves to papillary muscles
chordae tendineae
What is chordae tendineae?
anchors AV valves to papillary muscles
(1) are anchored to papillary muscles
AV
AV valves are anchored to (1)
papillary muslces
Where is the aortic semilunar valve located?
btwn the left ventricle and the aorta
NAME
is located btwn the left ventricle and aorta
aortic semilunar valves
Where are the pulmonary semilunar valves located?
btwn the right ventricle and pulomonary trunk
How do the locations of the aortic semilunar valves and the pulmonary semilunar valves differ?
(1)aortic semilunar valves- lie btwn the left ventricle and the aorta (2)pulmonary valves - lie btwn the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
NAME
lie btwn the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
pulmonary semilunar valves
(1) prevents backflow of blood into the ventricles
semilunar valves
Semilunar valves prevent (1)
backflow of blood into the ventricles
NAME
prevents backflow of blood into the ventricles
semilunar valves
What is the difference btwn the functions of semilunar valves and AV valves?
(1) semilunar valves- prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles (2)AV valves- prevent backflow of blood through the atria when the ventricles contract
What happens when ventricles contract and intraventricular pressure rises?
blood is pushed up against semilunar valves forcing them open
NAME
when this happens, blood is pushed up against the semilunar valves forcing them open
when ventricles contract and intraventricular pressure rises
What happens when the ventricles relax and intraventricular pressure fails?
blood flows back from the arteries, filling the cusps of the semilunar valves and forcing them to close
NAME
when this happens, blood flows back from the arteries, filling the cusps of the semilunar valves and forcing them to close
ventricles relax and intraventricular pressure fails
A cardiac muscle is (1)
striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected
NAME
are striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected
cardiac muscle
What is the role of connective tissue endomysium in the heart?
acts as both a tendon and insertion
NAME
acts both as a tendon and insterion
connective tissue endomysium
What are the functions of intercalated discs in the heart?
anchor cardiac cells together and allows free passage of ions
NAME
anchors cardiac cells together and allows free passage of ions
intercalated discs of the heart
How do heart muscles behave?
as a functional synctium
NAME
behaves as a functional synctium
heart muscles
How is a heart muscle stimulated?
by nerves and is self-excitable
NAME
is stimulated by nerves and is self excitable
heart muscle
How does the heart muscle contract?
as a unit
NAME
contracts as a unit
heart muscle
NAME
has a long absolute refractory period
heart muscle
Heart muscle has a long absoulte (1)
refractory period
(1) muscle contraction is similar to skeletal muscle contraction
cardiac
What do Autorhythmic cells do? (3)
(1)initate action potentials (2)have packemaker potenitals (3)use calcium influx for rising phase of action potential
NAME
initate action potentials
Autorhythmic cells
NAME
have pacemaker potentials
Autorhthimic cells
NAME
use calcium influx for rising phase of the action potential
autorhthimic cells
What are pacemaker potentials?
refers to unstable resting potentials
NAME
refers to unstable resting potentials
pacemaker potentials
What is heart physiology?
is intrinisc conduction system
NAME
is a intrinsic conduction system
heart physiology
What does SA stand for?
sinoatrial
What does AV stand for?
atrioventricular
NAME
generates impulses about 75 times/ min
SA
NAME
delays the impulse
AV nodes
AV nodes delays the (1)
impulse
What happens to the impulse?
passes from the atria to ventricles via atrioventricular bundle
the impulses passes from the (1) to (2) via the (3)
(1)atria (2)ventricles (3)atrioventricular bundle
AV bundle splits into (1)
two pathways in interventricular septum
NAME
splits into two pathways in the interventricular spetum
AV bundle
What are bundle branches?
carry the impluse toward the apex of the heart
NAME
carries the impulse toward the apex of the heart
bundle branches
NAME
carry the impulse to the heart apex and ventricular wall
purkinjie fibers
What are purkinjie fibers?
carry the impulse to heart apex and ventricular walls
What are the differ btwn bundle branches and purkinje fibers?
(1)bundles branches-carry impulse toward the apex of the heart (2)purkinje fiber- carry the impulse the heart apex and ventricular walls
NAME
generates impulses
SA
What is the SA?
generates impulses
What stimulates the heart?
the sympathitic cardioacceleatory center
NAME
is stimulated by the sympathitic cardioacceleatory center
heart
What inhibits the heart?
the parasympathetic cardioinhibitory center
NAME
is inhibits by the parasympathetic cardioinhibitory center
heart
How is electrical activity recorded?
by the ECG
What is the ECG?
records eletrical activity
What does the ECG stand for?
electrocardiogram
P waves corresponds to (1)
depolarization of SA node
NAME
corresponds to depolarization of SA node
P waves
NAME
corresponds to ventricular depolarization
QRS complex
QRS complex corresponds to (1)
ventricular depolarization
(1) corresponds to ventricular repolarization
T wave
T waves corresponds to (1)
ventricular repolarization
NAME
is masked by the larger QRS complex
atrial repolarization record
the heart sounds (lub-dup) are associated the (1)
closing of the heart valves
NAME
are associated with closing of the heart valves
heart sounds (lub-dup)
What are the first sounds of the heart?
occurs as AV valves close and signifies beginning of systole
NAME
occurs as AV valves close and signigies beginning of systole
the first sounds of the heart
What are the second sounds of the heart?
ocurs when SL valves close at the beginning of ventricular diastole
NAME
occurs when Sl valves close at the beginning of the ventricular diastole
secound sounds at the heart
What does the cardiac cycle refer to?
to all events associated w blood flow through the heart
NAME
refers to all events associated w blood flow through the heart
cardiac cycle
What is a systole?
is the contraction of the heart muscle
NAME
is the contraction of the heart muscle
systole
What is the diastole?
is the relaxiation of the heart muscle
NAME
is the relaxiation of the heart muscle
diastole
What is ventricular fillings?
are mid-to late diastole
NAME
are mid-to late diastole
ventricular fillings
What is the heart blood pressure like as it enters the atria and flows into the ventricles?
low
NAME
when are open then systole ocurs
AV valves
What happens when AV valves open?
then systole ocurs
What are the phases of the cardiac cycle? (4)
(1)ventricular filling (2)ventricular systole (3)isovolumetric relaxation (4)dicrotic notch
What is ventricular filling? (2)
(1)heart blood pressure is low as blood enters atria and flows into ventricle (2)AV valves are open then atrial systole occurs
NAME
during this the heart blood pressure is low as blood enters atria and flows into the ventricle and AV valves are open the then atrial systole occurs
ventricular filling
What happens during the ventricular systole? (4)
(1)atria relax (2)reising ventricular pressure resultings in closing of AV valves (3)isovolumetric contraction phase (4)ventricular ejection phase opens semilunar valves
Rising ventricular pressure results in (1)
closing of AV valves
NAME
results in closing of AV valves
rising ventricular pressure
Ventricular ejection phase opens (1)
semilunar valves
(1) opens semilunar valves
ventricular ejection phase
What is the isovolumetric relaxation?
early diastole
NAME
refers to the early diastole
isovolumetric relaxation
What happend during the isovolumatric relaxation? (2)
(1)ventricles relax (2)backflow of blood in aorta ad pulmonary trunk closes semilunar valves
NAME
the ventricles relax and the backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk closes semilunar valves
isovolumatric relaxation
NAME
this will result if the injury occurs in the T1 to L1 transcetions of the spinal cord affecting the lower limbs
paraplegia
NAME
this will result if the injury ocurs in the cervical region and affects all four limbs
quadriplegia
What are the nerves of the BP in order? (17)
(1)dorsal scapular (2)phrenic (3)long thoracic (4)subclavius (5)suprascapular (6)lateral pectoral nerve (7)axillary nerve (8)radial nerve (9)upper subscapular nerve (10)thoradorsal nerve (11)lower subscapular nerve (12)medial pectpral nerve (13)medial brachial cutaneous nerve (14)medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (15)musculocutaneous nerve (16)median nerve (17)ulnar nerve
What are the nerves of the BP in order? (17)
(1)dorsal scapular (2)phrenic (3)long thoracic (4)subclavius (5)suprascapular (6)lateral pectoral nerve (7)axillary nerve (8)radial nerve (9)upper subscapular nerve (10)thoradorsal nerve (11)lower subscapular nerve (12)medial pectpral nerve (13)medial brachial cutaneous nerve (14)medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (15)musculocutaneous nerve (16)median nerve (17)ulnar nerve
What are the nerves of the BP in order? (17)
(1)dorsal scapular (2)phrenic (3)long thoracic (4)subclavius (5)suprascapular (6)lateral pectoral nerve (7)axillary nerve (8)radial nerve (9)upper subscapular nerve (10)thoradorsal nerve (11)lower subscapular nerve (12)medial pectpral nerve (13)medial brachial cutaneous nerve (14)medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (15)musculocutaneous nerve (16)median nerve (17)ulnar nerve
What are the nerves of the BP in order? (17)
(1)dorsal scapular (2)phrenic (3)long thoracic (4)subclavius (5)suprascapular (6)lateral pectoral nerve (7)axillary nerve (8)radial nerve (9)upper subscapular nerve (10)thoradorsal nerve (11)lower subscapular nerve (12)medial pectpral nerve (13)medial brachial cutaneous nerve (14)medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (15)musculocutaneous nerve (16)median nerve (17)ulnar nerve
What are the nerves of the BP in order? (17)
(1)dorsal scapular (2)phrenic (3)long thoracic (4)subclavius (5)suprascapular (6)lateral pectoral nerve (7)axillary nerve (8)radial nerve (9)upper subscapular nerve (10)thoradorsal nerve (11)lower subscapular nerve (12)medial pectpral nerve (13)medial brachial cutaneous nerve (14)medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (15)musculocutaneous nerve (16)median nerve (17)ulnar nerve
What is the differ btwn alvusions and ruptures?(2)
alvusions= are when lower roots are torn
(2)Ruptures=when upper roots are torn
What is the differ btwn aluvisions and ruptures?(2)
(1)alvusions is when the lower roots are torn (2)ruptures=is when the upper roots are torn
What is the differ btwn aluvisions and ruptures?(2)
(1)alvusions is when the lower roots are torn (2)ruptures=is when the upper roots are torn
What is the differ btwn aluvisions and ruptures?(2)
(1)alvusions is when the lower roots are torn (2)ruptures=is when the upper roots are torn
What are the terminal bracnhces (in order? (3)?
(1)musculcuotenous nerve (2)median nerve (3)ulnar nerve
What is the differ btwn the dorsal scapular nerve, the long thoracic nerve, and the thoradorsal nerve? (3)
(1)dorsal scapular= (posterior shoudler and d for deep shoulder muscles)=rhomboids and levatar scapulae
(2)long thoracic nerve=serratus anterior
(3)thoradorsal nerve= posterior shoulder)Latisssmi dorsi
What is the differ btwn the dorsal scapular nerve, the long thoracic nerve, and the thoradorsal nerve? (3)
(1)dorsal scapular= (posterior shoudler and d for deep shoulder muscles)=rhomboids and levatar scapulae
(2)long thoracic nerve=serratus anterior
(3)thoradorsal nerve= posterior shoulder)Latisssmi dorsi
What is the differ btwn the dorsal scapular nerve, the long thoracic nerve, and the thoradorsal nerve? (3)
(1)dorsal scapular= (posterior shoudler and d for deep shoulder muscles)=rhomboids and levatar scapulae
(2)long thoracic nerve=serratus anterior
(3)thoradorsal nerve= posterior shoulder)Latisssmi dorsi
what is the differ btwn 2nd and 3rd class lever?
see notes
what is the differ btwn static and dynamic?
(1)static-at rest (2)dynamic -in motion
What is the differ btwn ligaments and tendons?
(1)ligaments- attach bone to bone (2)tendons attach muscle to bone
what are (3)layers of bone?
(1)cancellous (2)cortical (3)periosteum