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37 Cards in this Set

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In anatomical terms, where is the heart located?
It lies in the mediastinum just below the body of the sternum between points of attachment of the second through sixth ribs. Approximately two thirds of the heart’s mass is to the left of the midline of the body and one third is to the right
Describe the shape of the heart.
In the adult the shape of the heart tends to resemble that of the chest. In tall, thin individuals the heart is frequently described as elongated, whereas in short, stocky individuals it has greater width and is described as transverse. In individuals of average height and weight it is neither long nor transverse but somewhat intermediate between the two
When does the heart attain its adult shape and weight?
Between puberty and 25 years of age the heart attains its adult shape and weight—about 310 g is average for the male and 225 g for the female
What provides lubrication & protection against friction?
The fibrous pericardial sac with its smooth, well-lubricated lining
Name the layers of tissues that make up the pericardium.
Fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium (parietal and visceral layers)
What is the function of the pericardium?
The pericardium provides protection against friction by producing a lubricating serous fluid
Name the three layers of tissue that make up the wall of the heart. What is the function of each layer?
Epicardium: protection. Myocardium: contraction. Endocardium: lining of the interior of the myocardial wall. Covers the trabeculae
Name the four chambers of the heart and the valves associated with them.
Right atrium: tricuspid valve. Right ventricle: tricuspid and pulmonary semilunar valves. Left atrium: bicuspid valve. Left ventricle: bicuspid valve and aortic semilunar valve.
How do atrioventricular valves differ from semilunar valves?
Atrioventricular valves consist of two or three (cusps) of endocardium. Semilunar valves consist of half-moon flaps growing out from the lining of the pulmonary artery and aorta
Briefly describe the general structure and the function of the coronary circulation. Why is an understanding of the coronary circulation so critical to understanding major types of heart disease?
Myocardial cells receive blood by way of the right and left coronary arteries. They branch off of the aorta at its very beginning and are its first branches. After blood has passed through capillary beds in the myocardium, it enters a series of cardiac veins before draining into the right atrium through a common venous channel called the coronary sinus. More than a half million Americans die every year from coronary disease, and another 3.5 million or more are estimated to suffer some degree of incapacitation. Knowledge about the distribution of coronary artery branches therefore has the utmost practical importance
What is meant by the term conduction system of the heart?
The conduction system of the heart refers to the structures that initiate and maintain a rhythmic heartbeat.
What is a myocardial infarction?
Myocardial infarction is the death of ischemic heart muscle cells
Name the three major types of blood vessels.
Artery, vein, capillary.
Anastomosis
connection between vessels that allows collateral circulation
Arteriole
Small branch of an artery
Artery
vessel carrying blood away from the heart
Atrium
one of the upper chambers of the heart; receives blood from either the systemic or pulmonary circulation
Capillary
tiny vessels that connect arterioles and venules; gas exchange from blood to tissues occurs in capillaries
Endocardium
thin layer of very smooth tissue lining each chamber of the heart
Endothelium
squamous epithelial cells that line the inner surface of the entire circulatory system and the vessels of the lymphatic system
Myocardium
inner layer of the pericardium that covers the surface of the heart; it is also called the visceral pericardium
Pericardium
muscle of the heart
Pulmonary Circulation
membrane that surrounds the heart
Pulmonary Circulation
blood flow from the right ventricle to the lung and returning to the left atrium
Systematic Circulation
blood flow from the left ventricle to all parts of the body and back to the right atrium
Vein
vessel carrying blood from capillaries toward the heart
Ventricle
a cavity, such as the large, fluid-filled spaces within the brain or the chambers of the heart
Venule
small blood vessels that collect blood from capillaries and join to form veins
How does the structure of each major type of vessel differ from the other types?
The walls of the arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in arteries. The inner layer of the veins contains valves. The capillaries have only one layer (endothelium).
How does the function of capillaries relate to the structure of their walls?
14. The thinness of the capillary wall permits ease of transport across the vessel wall.
What is the difference between the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation.
15. Pulmonary circulation moves blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart. Systemic circulation blood flows from the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body and back to the heart.
What is the function of arterial anastomoses? What is the function of venous anastomoses?
16. Arterial anastomoses provide detour routes for blood to travel in the event of obstruction of a main artery. The incidence of arterial anastomoses increases as distance from the heart increases, and smaller branches tend to anastomose more often than larger vessels. Veins anastomose with each other in the same way as arteries. Venous anastomoses provide for collateral return blood flow in cases of venous obstruction.
How are systemic arteries and veins usually named?
17. Systemic arteries and veins are generally named according to their anatomical position, relation to regions, and adjacent organs.
What are the advantages of a portal circulation through the liver?
18. Excess glucose is removed from the blood and stored in liver cells as glycogen to be used later. Also, toxic molecules such as alcohol can be partially removed or detoxified before the blood is distributed to the rest of the body.
Name some structures of the fetal circulation that do not occur in the adult.
19. Umbilical arteries, placenta, umbilical vein, ductus venosus, foramen ovale, and the ductus arteriosus.
What is the function of the placenta and umbilical vessels?
20. Placenta: structure attached to uterine wall that facilitates the exchange of oxygen and other substances between maternal and fetal blood. Umbilical vessels: (veins) return oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus; (arteries) carry fetal blood to the placenta
What changes in the circulatory system occur at the time of birth?
21. The placenta is shed from the body with part of the umbilical vessels attached. The sections of these vessels become fibrous cords. The ductus venosus becomes the ligamentum venosum. The foramen ovale normally becomes functionally closed soon after a newborn takes the first breath. It will become the fossa ovalis. The ductus arteriosus contracts as soon as respiration is established. It becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.