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110 Cards in this Set

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What are 5 functions of the respiratory system?
1) provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood
2) moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs
3) protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment
4) produces sounds
5) participates in olfactory sense
What is in the upper respiratory tract?
-nostrils
-nasal passagees
-paranasal sinuses
-pharynx
-larynx
What is in the lower respiratory tract?
-trachea
-bronchi
-bronchioles
-alveolar ducts
-alveoli
What are the two portions of the respiratory tract?
-conducting portion
*from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles
-respiratory portion
*respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
Where is the respiratory mucous membrane?
-lines conducting portion of respiratory system
What does the respiratory mucous memrane consist of?
-an epithelial layer
-an areolar layer
How does the epithelial layer of mucous membrane change?
-goes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to a very delicate simple squamous epithelium
What are responsible for producing mucus?
-goblet cells
-mucous glands
What is cilia for?
-sweep debris trapped in mucus toward the pharynx
What is the purpose of filtration in respiration?
-to remove large particles
What do alveolar macrophages do?
-engulf small particles that reach lungs
What part does the nost play in respiration?
-air enters through nostrils (external nares)
-air into nasal vestibule
-air goes through nasal hairs in the nasal vestibule as first particle filtration system
-air goes from vestibule to internal nares
What divides the nasal cavity into left and right parts?
-nasal septum
What must the air pass through to get from external to internal nares?
-superior meatus
-middle meatus
-inferior meatus
What happens as air passes through the three meatus' and why?
-turbulence for:
-warming and humidifying incoming air
-trapping particles
What clean and moisten the nasal cavity?
-mucous secretions from paranasal sinus
-tears
Where and what is the olfactory region?
-superior portion of nasal cavity
-provides sense of smell
What/where is the hard palate?
-forms floor of nasal cavity
-separates nasal and oral cavities
What/where is the soft palate?
-extends posterior to hard palate
-divides superior nasopharynx from lower pharynx
Where do the digestive and respiratory systems meet?
-pharynx
Where is the pharynx located?
-extends from the internal nares to entrances to the larynx and esophagus
What are the divisions of the pharynx?
-nasopharynx (superior)
-oropharynx (middle)
-laryngopharynx (inferior)
*extends from hyoid bone to entrance of larynx and esophagus
After air leaves pharynx, where does the air go?
-through glottis
-into larynx
What is the larynx?
-cartilaginous structure that surrounds the glottis
-composed of three large cartilages adn three smaller pairs of cartilages
What is the epiglottis?
-prevents entry of food and liquids into respiratory tract
-when swallowing, larynx is elevated and epiglottis folds back over glottis
What are the two pairs of folds that span the glottis?
-the inelastic vestibular folds
-more delicate vocal folds
How is sound produced?
-air passes through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds producing sound
Where is the trachea located?
-extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi
*posterior tracheal wall can distort to permit large masses of food to pass through the esophagus
What does the trachea look like?
-contains C-shaped tracheal cartilages
-stiffen the tracheal walls and protect the airway
What does the trachea divide into?
-left and right primary bronchi which enter each lung
How is the bronchial tree formed?
-primary bronchi branches apart
How does the cartilage change as bronchi branch (and smooth muscle)?
-decreases and smooth muscle increases
What are the two functions of the lung?
-air distribution
-gas exchange
What are the parts of the lung?
-hilus
-base
-apex
-convex lateral surface
What is the hilus of the lung?
-where pulmonary nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics enter lung
What is the base of the lung?
-inferior portion of each lung rests on superior surface of diaphragm
What seperates the lobes of each lung?
-fissures
What are the lobes of the right lung?
-cranial
-caudal
-middle
*sometimes a small accessory lobe
What are the lobes of the left lung?
-cranial
-caudal
What is special about horse lungs?
-they are unlobed
What are the branching bronchial tree?
-primary bronchus branches to form secondary bronchi
-secondary bronchi branch to form tertiary bronchi
-tertiary bronchus branches into multiple bronchioles
-bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles
Where do each secondary bronchi go?
-into each lobe
What are tertiary bronchi known as?
What do they do?
How many are in each lung?
-segmental bronchi
-supplies air to a single bronchopulmonary segment
-8 to 10 segments in each lung in human
What are bronchioles made of?
-no cartilage
-dominated by smooth muscle
What controls diameter of bronchioles and airflow/ resistance in lungs?
-autonomic control regulates smooth muscle, bronchioles are dominated by smooth muscle
What are the smallest compartments of the lung?
-pulmonary lobules
How does blood enter and exit pulmonary lobules?
-arteriole
-venuole
What connects respiratory bronchioles to alveoli?
-alveolar ducts
Finally, what do terminal bronchioles split into (in lobules)?
-respiratory bronchioles
What are alveolus?
-air filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange takes place
-a capillary network surrounds each alveolus
-surrounded by elastic fibers
What is alveolar epithelium?
-consists of simple squamous epithelium
-contains septal cells that produce surfactant
-patrolled by alveolar macrophages
What does the respiratory membrane do?
-the thin membrane of alveoli where gas exchange takes place
What are the three parts of the respiratory membrane?
-squamous epithelial lining of alveolus
-endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary
-fused basal laminae between alveolar and endothelial cells
Why is gas diffusion very rapid across respiratory membrane?
-because distance is small
-gases (oxygen and CO2) are lipid soluble
What is the circuit called which supplies blood to the lungs?
-pulmonary circuit
Where to the pulmonary arteries enter the lungs?
-at the hilus and branch with the bronchi
Where does the oxygenated blood from the alveolar capillaries go?
-pass through pulmonary venules
-enters pulmonary veins
-delivered into left atrium
What separates the 2 pleural cavities?
-mediastinum
What does each pleural cavity hold?
-holds a lung
-lined with a serous membrane (the pleura)
What are the two layers of the serous cavity?
-parietal pleura
-visceral pleura
What lubricates the space between the two pleura?
-pleural fluid
What is external respiration?
-the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs
What does external respiration include?
-pulmonary ventilation
-gas diffusion across the respiratory membrane
-transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
What is internal respiration?
-the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue cells
What is pulmonary ventilation?
-the physical movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract (inspiration and expiration)
What is Boyle's law?
-as pressure on a gas decreases, its volume expands
-as pressure increases, gas volume contracts (P=1/V)
What is normal atmospheric pressure?
-at sea level, it's about 760mm Hg
-mm Hg is millimeters of mercury
What is compliance?
-ability of pulmonary tissues to stretch, making inspiration possible
What are the mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation?
-air flows from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure
-relationship between intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure determines the direction of air flow
What is intrapulmonary pressure?
-pressure measured inside the respiratory tract, at the alveoli
-on inhalation: -1 mm Hg
-on exhalation: +1 mm Hg
What is intrapleural pressure?
-pressure measured in the space between the parietal and vesceral pleura
- -4mm Hg to -18 mm Hg
What are the most important respiratory muscles?
-the diaphragm
-external intracostal muscles of the ribs
-accessory respiratory muscles
What are the accessory respiratory muscles?
*When are these activated
-internal intercostal
-pectoralis minor
-rectus abdominis muscles
-activated when respiration increases significantly
What are the modes of breathing?
-quiet breathing
-forced breathing
What is quiet breathing?
-eupnea
-involves active inhalation and passive exhalation
-involves the diaphragm and the external and internal intercostal muscles
What is forced breathing?
-hyperpnea
-involves active inhalation and exhalation
-assisted by accessory muscles
What is the instrument used to measure volume of air?
-spirometer
What are the 4 pulmonary volumes?
1) Tidal volume
2) expiratory reserve volume
3) inspiratory reserve volume
4) resudual volume
What are the 4 calculated respiratory capacities?
1) inspiratory capacity
2) functional residual capacity
3) vital capacity
4) total lung capacity
What is tidal volume?
-amount of air moving into or out of the lung furing a single respiratory cycle
What is expiratory reserve volume?
-largest volume of additional air can be forcibly exhaled
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
-amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after normal inspiration
What is residual volume?
-amount of air that cannot be forcibly exhaled
What is inspiratory capacity?
-tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
What is functional residual capacity?
-the amoun tof air at the end of a normal respiration
-expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
What is vital capacity?
-the sum of IRV + TV + ERV
What is total lung capacity?
-the total amount of air a lung can hold
-vital capacity + resudual volume
Where does gas exchange occur?
*What does it depend on?
-occurs between blood and alveolar air
-occurs across the respiratory membrane
-depends on partial pressures of the gases, and diffusion of molecules between gas and liquid
What is partial pressure?
-the pressure contributed by each gas in teh atmosphere
-all partial pressures add up to 760 mm Hg
What is Henry's Law?
-The amoun tof a gas in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas
-the actual amount of a gas in solution at a given partial pressure and temperature depends on teh solubility of the gas in that particular liquid
Where is blood flow greatest?
-coordinated with air flow
-greatest around alveoli with highest P02 values
Under normal conditions, equilibrium exists between what in respiration?
-absorption of oxygen and generation of carbon dioxide in peripheral cells
-the capillary rates of delivery and removal
-oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide excretion at the lungs
What homeostatic mechanisms occur if equilibrium becomes unbalanced in respiration?
-changes in blood flow and oxygen delivery that are regulated at the local level
-changes in teh depth and rate of respiration under the control of the brain's respiratory centers
Where are the respiratory centers located in the brain?
-pons and medulla oblongata
-
What are the respiratory centers in the pons called?
-apneustic
-pneumotaxic centers
Where are the respiratory rhythmicity centers located and what do they do?
-medulla oblongata
-set the pace of respiration
What 2 groups can the rhythmicity centers be divided into?
-dorsal respiratory group
-ventral respiratory group
What is the dorsal respiratory group do?
-inspiratory center
-functions in quiet and forced breathing
What is the ventral respiratory group?
-inspiratory and expiratory center
-functions only in forced breathing
What do the apneustic and pneumotaxic centers of the Pons do?
-adjust output of respiratory rhythmicity centers
What does the apneustic center do?
-stimulates the inspiratory center to increase the length and depth of inspiration
What does the pneumotaxic center do?
-inhibits the apneustic center and inspiratory center to prevent overinflation of the lungs
What are three respiratory reflexes?
1) chemoreceptor reflexes
2) baroreceptor reflexes
3)Hering-Breuer reflexes
What are chemoreceptors sensitive to?
*What does this lead to?
-P CO2, P O2, pH
-blood or cerebrospinal fluid
*leads to increased depth and rate of respiration
Describe barareceptor reflexes.
-carotid and aortic barareceptor stimulation affects blood pressure and respiratory centers
-when blood pressure falls, respiration increases
-when blood pressure increases, respiration decreases
What are 2 baroreceptor reflexes involved in forced breathing?
-inflation reflex
-deflation reflex
What does the inflation reflex do in the Hering-Breuer reflexes?
-prevents overexpansion of lungs
What does the deflation reflex do in the Hering-Breuer reflexes?
-inhibits expiratory centers
-stimulates inspiratory centers during lung deflation
What are the primary dirvers of respiratory activity?
-CO2 levels, not O2 levels!
Input from what three things cause modification of basic pace of respiration.
*Where does this occur?
-chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, stretch receptors
-basic pace of respiration established between respiratory centers in the pons and medulla oblongata