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180 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy is...
Science that studies the normal body structures
Physiology is...
Science that studies the normal body functions.
Relationship is...
Structure is the basis for function, while function reflects structure
Characteristics of Life are:
Responsiveness
Conductivity
Growth
Respiration
Digestion
Absorption
Secretion
Excretion
Circulation
Reproduction
Levels of Organization:
Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
System
Organism
Standard Anatomical Position:
Body erect
Face forward
Arms at sides
Palms forward
Legs straight
Soles on ground
Dorsal cavities:
Cranial
Spinal
Ventral cavities:
Thoracic
Mediastinum
(including pericardial)
Pleural
Abdominopelvic
Anatomy is...
Science that studies the normal body structures
Physiology is...
Science that studies the normal body functions.
Relationship is...
Structure is the basis for function, while function reflects structure
Characteristics of Life are:
Responsiveness
Conductivity
Growth
Respiration
Digestion
Absorption
Secretion
Excretion
Circulation
Reproduction
Levels of Organization:
Chemical
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
System
Organism
Standard Anatomical Position:
Body erect
Face forward
Arms at sides
Palms forward
Legs straight
Soles on ground
Body Cavities
Dorsal cavities
Cranial
Spinal
Ventral cavities
Thoracic
Mediastinum

(including pericardial)
Pleural
Abdominopelvic
Abdominal
Pelvic
Diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
Specific Body Regions
Axial
Centrally located areas
Appendicular
Attached to axial regions
9 Abdominal Regions
Organs in what region?
Liver
Gallbladder
Stomach
Spleen
Small intestine
Large intestine
Appendix
Kidney
Urinary bladder
Uterus
4 Abdominal Quadrants
RUQ
LUQ
RLQ
LLQ
Directional Terms, Sections and Planes
Directional terms:
Superior vs inferior
Anterior vs posterior
Proximal vs distal
Medial vs lateral

Sections and planes:
Sagittal (mid or para)
Frontal (coronal)
Transverse (cross section)
Homeostasis Definition:
The internal body remains in a relatively stable condition in the face of continuous changes in the external environment
Homeostatic control mechanisms
Negative feedback
Positive feedback
Negative Feedback
The output (response) of a system tries to reverse the input (stimulus) of the system
Most of our body's regulatory mechanisms for homeostasis are controlled via negative feedback
Ex. Goosebumps to warm body
Positive Feedback
The output (response) of a system acts to enhance the input (stimulus) of the system
It is potentially dangerous or harmful, so it must be completed quickly
Ex. Release of Oxytocin during Childbirth
Matter is:
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Two Types of Substances are:
Pure & Mixed
Example of Pure Substance:
elements; Atoms are basic units of elements
Example of Mixed Substance:
compounds;
Molecules are made up of atoms
Elements in the Human Body
Major elements
Oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), sodium (natrium or Na), potassium (kalium or K), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), and magnesium (Mg)
Trace Elements in the Human Body
Trace elements
Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), fluorine (F), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), iodine (I), etc.
What 3 particles make up the atom model?
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Number of protons is equal to number of electrons
Energy Levels of an atom:
Inner Ring:Maximum of 2 electrons
Outer Ring:Maximum of 8 electrons
5 Common Elements:
Hydrogen 1p+,1e-
Nitorgen 10p+,10e-,10N
Helium 2p+,2e-,2N
Oxygen 8p+,8e-,8N
Carbon 6p+,6e-,6N
Chemical Bonds – Ionic Bond
Gain or loss or electrons
Ions are charged atoms
Chemical Bonds – Covalent Bond
Sharing of electrons, strongest bond
Chemical Bonds – Hydrogen Bond
Weak attractive force between opposite charges
Chemical Reactions
(Dehydration vs. Hydrolysis)
Dehydration: synthesis of polymer with removal of water
Hydrolysis: breakdown of polymer with addition of water
Inorganic vs. Organic Molecules
Inorganic molecules
Absence of hydrocarbon (CH)
Organic molecules
Presence of hydrocarbon (CH)
Examples of Inorganic Molecules
Water
Good solvent and temperature buffer
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Respiratory gases
Acids and bases
Determined by hydrogen ion concentration
Measured by pH scale
Salts
Products of reactions between acids and bases
pH Scale
Power of hydrogen ions
Neutral when pH = 7
Acidic when pH < 7
Basic (alkaline) when pH > 7
Organic Molecules: ~Carbohydrates
Main energy source of the body
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Examples are glucose, lactose, sucrose, glycogen, and starch
Organic Molecules – Lipids
Energy storage of the body
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Examples are fats, oils, and steroids
Organic Molecules – Proteins
Structure and function of the body
Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Examples are keratin, hemoglobin, antibodies, and enzymes
Organic Molecules – Nucleic Acids
Genetic material of the body and cellular form of energy
Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Examples are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
General Cell Structures:
3 parts
Cell (plasma) membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Cell Membrane
What organic molecules are found in the cell membrane?
Organelles in Cytoplasm
Ribosome
Endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondrion
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Centrosome (centrioles)
Nucleus
~Control center of the cell
~Nucleolus is the site of ribosome production
~Chromatin and chromosome are the genetic material
Cell Surface Extensions
Cilia
Respiratory tract
Microvilli
~Intestines
Flagella
~Sperm cells
Cytoskeleton
Microtubule
~Thickest fiber
Microfilament
~Thinnest fiber
Intermediate filament
~Networking
Cell-and-Cell Connections
Desmosome
~Spot Belt
~Gap junction
Tight junction
Main Functions of Cells:
Membrane transport
Cell metabolism
Cell growth and reproduction
Membrane Transport:
Passive transport & Active transport
Explain the two different types of membrane transport:
Passive transport
~No cellular energy (ATP) is required;Movement of substances along the concentration or pressure gradient
Active transport
Cellular energy (ATP) is consumed
~Active Transport is Movement of substances against the concentration or pressure gradient
Passive Transport – Diffusion
Movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Gated Transport
Passive Transport – Dialysis
Showing the property of selective permeability
Passive Transport – Osmosis
Diffusion of water across the semi-permeable membrane
Effects of Osmosis on RBCs
Hypotonic-Low solutes and high water
Hypertonic-High solutes and low water
Isotonic-Same solute and water concentrations
Passive Transport – Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion that requires carrier molecules
Carrier Mediated Transport
Active Transport - Na+-K+ Pump
~For every ATP molecule consumed, 3 Na+ are pumped out of and 2 K+ are pumped into the cell
~To keep the normal cell volume and generate resting membrane potential
Endocytosis
Endocytosis:
Phagocytosis (cell eating)
Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
Main Functions of Cells:
Membrane transport
Cell metabolism
Cell growth and reproduction
Membrane Transport:
Passive transport & Active transport
Explain the two different types of membrane transport:
Passive transport
~No cellular energy (ATP) is required;Movement of substances along the concentration or pressure gradient
Active transport
Cellular energy (ATP) is consumed
~Active Transport is Movement of substances against the concentration or pressure gradient
Passive Transport – Diffusion
Movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Gated Transport
Passive Transport – Dialysis
Showing the property of selective permeability
Passive Transport – Osmosis
Diffusion of water across the semi-permeable membrane
Effects of Osmosis on RBCs
Hypotonic-Low solutes and high water
Hypertonic-High solutes and low water
Isotonic-Same solute and water concentrations
Passive Transport – Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion that requires carrier molecules
Carrier Mediated Transport
Active Transport - Na+-K+ Pump
~For every ATP molecule consumed, 3 Na+ are pumped out of and 2 K+ are pumped into the cell
~To keep the normal cell volume and generate resting membrane potential
Endocytosis
Endocytosis:
Phagocytosis (cell eating)
Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
Exocytosis:
Exocytosis
Secretion of neurotransmitters or hormones
Excretion of waste products
Genes Determine Traits
Flow of genetic information
Transcription: DNA → RNA (transcript)
Translation: RNA → protein (gene product)
Sex Cell Production
Mitosis>Meiosis I>Meiosis II
Histology:
study of tissues
Histogenesis:
formation of tissues
4 Principal Types of Tissues:
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Epithelial tissue
Covering and lining
Connective tissue
Connecting and supporting
Muscle tissue
Contraction and movement
Nervous tissue
Communication and coordination
Classification of Epithelial Tissue
Cell shapes
Cell arrangements
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Single-layered flattened cells
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Single-layered cube-like cells
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Single-layered column-like cells
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
Not all cells reach the free surface
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Keratinized & Nonkeratinized
Give example of Keratinized :
(cornified)
Seen in the skin
example of Nonkeratinized:
Seen in non-cutaneous organs, such as mouth, esophagus, vagina
ex of Transitional Epithelium:
Cell shapes change when the bladder is full
Epithelial Exocrine Glands
Apocrine gland
Holocrine gland
Merocrine gland (most common type)
Apocrine gland
Collect secretory products near the apex (tip), and then release them into a duct by pinching off the distended end, e.g. mammary glands
Holocrine gland
Collect secretory products inside the cell, and then rupture completely to release them, e.g. sebaceous glands
Merocrine gland (most common type)
Discharge secretory products directly through the plasma membrane without injury to cell structure, e.g. salivary glands
Classification of Connective Tissue (2 types):
Fibrous CT
Special CT
Fibrous CT
Loose, areolar
Adipose
Reticular
Dense regular
Dense irregular
Special CT
Osseous (compact bone)
Cartilages
Blood tissue
Loose, Areolar Tissue
Most abundant tissue in the body
Adipose Tissue
Seen in fatty structures
Reticular Tissue
Seen in the liver and spleen
Dense Regular Tissue
Seen in the tendons and ligaments
Dense Irregular Tissue
Seen in the dermis and scar tissues
Osseous Tissue
Seen in the compact bone
3 types of Cartilages:
Hyaline
Fibrocartilage
Elastic
Ex of Hyaline:
Nose, rib, and end of a long bone
Ex of Fibrocartilage:
Intervertebral disc and pubic symphysis
Ex of Elastic:
External ear
Blood Tissue consists of:
Plasma (liquid) and blood cells (solid)
3 types of:
Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth
Nervous Tissue consists of:
Nerve cells (neurons)
Neuroglia (glial cells)
What is the function of Nerve Cells (neurons)?
Conducting neural impulses
What is the function of Neuroglia (glial cells)?
Supporting nerve cells
Body Membranes (2 types):
Connective tissue membranes
&
Epithelial tissue membranes
Epithelial tissue membranes are present:
Cutaneous
Serous
Mucous
Connective tissue membranes are found:
Synovial
Line joint cavities and bursae
Overview of Skin:
Largest, heaviest, thinnest, and most sensitive organ in the body consisting of Cutaneous membranes & Subcutaneous Tissue
Cutaneous membranes
Epidermis and dermis
Subcutaneous tissue (superficial fascia)
Hypodermis
Epidermal Cell Layers
Stratum corneum (horny layer)
Stratum lucidum (clear layer, only seen in thick skin, e.g. palms and soles)
Stratum granulosum (granular layer)
Stratum spinosum (spiny layer)
Stratum basale (basal layer)
Epidermal Cell Types
Keratinocytes
~Make up > 90% of epidermal cells, produce water-proofing protein (keratin)
Melanocytes
~Compose > 5% of epidermal cells, produce skin pigment (melanin)
Langerhans cells
~Phagocytic cells, serving as a defense mechanism
Dermal Structures
Papillary & Reticular
Papillary layer
Dermal papillae: for fingerprints
Reticular layer
Contains specialized sensory receptors, muscle fibers, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, and blood vessels
Skin Color
~Determined by the genes and skin pigment (melanin)
~Modified by the oxygen level and volume of the blood in the blood vessels
Regulation of Body Temperature
1. Heat Production
2. Heat Loss
3. Heat Transfer
Heat Production
From metabolism, especially in skeletal muscle and liver
Heat Loss
Through skin: about 80%
Through respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts: about 20%
Heat Transfer
Evaporation, radiation, conduction, and convection
Skin Appendages
Hair
Nails
Glands
2 types of Cutaneous Glands:
Sweat gland
Sebaceous (oil) gland
2 types of sweat glands:
Eccrine
Apocrine
4 Types of Bones:
Long bones
Flat bones
Short bones
Irregular bones
Typical Long Bone
Epiphysis
Diaphysis
Spongy bone
Red marrow
Compact bone
Medullary cavity
Yellow marrow
Endosteum
Periosteum
Osseous Tissue
Found in compact bone
Osteon (Haversian system): functional unit
Central (Haversian) and perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
Concentric, interstitial, and circumferential lamellae
Lacunae and osteocytes (osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
Osteon (Haversian system): functional unit
Central (Haversian) and perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
Concentric, interstitial, and circumferential lamellae
Lacunae and osteocytes (osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
Osteon (Haversian system): functional unit
Central (Haversian) and perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
Concentric, interstitial, and circumferential lamellae
Lacunae and osteocytes (osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
Functions of Bones
Support
Protection
Movement (through joints)
Mineral (calcium) storage
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis (blood cell formation)
Functions of Bones
Support
Protection
Movement (through joints)
Mineral (calcium) storage
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis (blood cell formation)
Functions of Bones
Support
Protection
Movement (through joints)
Mineral (calcium) storage
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis (blood cell formation)
Development
of Bones
Endochondral bone formation
Cartilage calcification
Primary ossification center
Secondary ossification center
Development
of Bones
Endochondral bone formation
Cartilage calcification
Primary ossification center
Secondary ossification center
Development
of Bones
Endochondral bone formation
Cartilage calcification
Primary ossification center
Secondary ossification center
Growth of Bones
(3 types)
1. Epiphyseal
2. Growth in Length
3. Growth in Diameter
Epiphyseal
Growth in cartilage surrounding epiphysis; cartilage ossification; bone remodeled.
Growth in Length
Interstitial Growth; Cartilage growth in epiphyseal plate; bone remodeled; bone resorption
Growth in Diameter
Appositionall Growth; Bone resorption and bone addition
How many bones in Axial Skeleton?
80 bones in total
How many bones in Skull?
28 bones
How many bones in Cranium?
List bones paired vs unpaired...
8 bones;
Unpaired: frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid
Paired: parietal and temporal
How many bones in Face?
Paired vs unpaired?
14 bones;
Paired: nasal, maxillary, zygomatic, lacrimal, palatine, inferior nasal conchae
Unpaired: mandible and vomer
How many bones in Ear ossicles?
6 bones;
Malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)
Nasal Cavity
Nasal bone
Ethmoid
~Perpendicular plate
~Superior and middle nasal conchae
Vomer
Inferior nasal concha
Oral Cavity
Maxillary bone
Palatine bone
Mandible
Hyoid Bone
Only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bones
Vertebral Column
26 bones in total
Cervical: 7
Thoracic: 12
Lumbar: 5
Sacrum: 1
Coccyx: 1
Normal curvatures of Vertebral Column
Thoracic: backward
Lumbar: forward
3 types of Abnormal Spinal Curvatures:
Lordosis (swayback)
Kyphosis (hunchback)
Scoliosis (lateral curvature)
Features of Different Vertebrae

Cervical:
Atlas (C1) and axis (C2)
Transverse foramen
Features of Different Vertebrae

Thoracic:
Facet for rib attachment
Features of Different Vertebrae

Lumbar
Massive body
Rib Cage
25 bones in total
Sternum: 1
Ribs: 24
True ribs>7 pairs
False ribs>5 pairs
Floating ribs> last 2 pairs
Appendicular Skeleton
126 bones in total
Upper extremity: 64 bones
Upper Appendicular Skeleton
Shoulder (pectoral) girdle: 4 bones
Upper Appendicular Skeleton

(Upper) arm: 2 bones
Humerus
Upper Appendicular Skeleton

Forearm: 4 bones
Radius
Ulna
Upper Appendicular Skeleton

Hands
Carpals: 16 bones
Metacarpals: 10 bones
Phalanges: 28 bones
Lower Appendicular Skeleton
126 bones in total
Lower extremity: 62 bones
Lower Appendicular Skeleton

Hip (pelvic) girdle: 2 bones
Coxal bone (ilium, ischium, and pubis)
Lower Appendicular Skeleton

Thigh: 2 bones
Femur
Patella: 2 bones
Lower Appendicular Skeleton

(Lower) leg: 4 bones
Tibia
Fibula
Lower Appendicular Skeleton

Tarsals
14 bones
Lower Appendicular Skeleton

Metatarsals:
10 bones
Lower Appendicular Skeleton

Phalanges
28 bones
Carpals
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
Metacarpals
1st through 5th
Phalanges
Proximal, middle, and distal
Coxal Bone

Acetabulum:
Formed by ilium, ischium, and pubis
Coxal Bone

Obturator foramen:
Formed by ischium and pubis