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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Definition of archaea.
One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being bacteria.
Describe the three domain system of classification.
A system of taxonomic classification based on three basic groups: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
What are the three most common shapes of prokaryotes.
Spherical, Rod-shaped, and Helical.
What does the cell wall do?
Maintains the shape of the cell, offers physical protection, and prevents the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment.
What is gram-positive?
The group of bacteria with simpler cell walls with a relatively large amount of peptidoglycan. Gram-positive bacteria are usually less toxic than gram-negative bacteria.
What is gram negative?
The group of bacteria with a structurally more complex cell wall made of less peptidoglycan. Gram-negative bacteria are often more toxic than gram-positive bacteria.
What are the three mechanisms motile bacteria use to move?
Flagella, spirochetes, and slimy threads that anchor the cells to the substratum.
Idicate where photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place in prokaryotic cells.
Both take place in the infoldings of the cell membrane of the membranes of a prokaryotic ell.
What are obligate aerobes?
An organism that requires oxygen for cellular respiration and cannot live without it.
List the three main groups of archaea.
Archaeabacteria, euryarchaeota, and crenarchaeota.
List the characteristics of protists.
-more complex than prokaryotes
Define protists.
A relatively simple eukaryote.
Define amoeboid movement.
amoeboid will force interaction of actin filaments with myosin near the cells trailingend squeezes the interior fluid into the pseudopodium.
List three mechanisms of movement in protists.
-amoeboid movement
What are the different nutritional strategies of protists.
-absorbtion(from decomposers)
The kingdom Protista causes dissatisfaction among taxonomists mainly because ____________.
various pieces of evidence indicate that the Protista are not monophyletic
What do a carnivorous dinoflagellate, a parasitic apicomplexan, and Paramecium have in common?
All three have alveoli under their cell surfaces.
In general, how do algae and protozoans differ?
Algae are photosynthetic, and almost all protozoans are heterotrophic.
__________ are autotrophs that float near the surface of water and serve as the basis of the food chain.
Protists are a diverse group of organisms that includes _____.
algae and protozoans
Land plants arose during the _____.
Cambrian, land plants arose from aquatic ancestors at least 550 million years ago.
List the characteristics that distinguish land plants from charophycean algae.
-apical meristems
-multicellular embryos dependent on parent
-alternation of generations
-sporangia produce walled spores
-gametangia-produce gametes(land plants)
What are the four main groups of land plants.
bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperm.
In ferns the leaves are called _____.
Define sporophyte.
The multicellular diploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
Mosses dont have "true leaves" due to the absence of...
vascular tissues
What is the fern gametophyte is calle?
Prothallus, the fern gametophyte, called a prothallus, lacks vascular tissues but has hairlike anchoring rhizoids.
Do moss gametophytes produce sperm and eggs?
Yes, they produce gametes, eggs and sperm.
What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
Stomata, because plants are covered with a waxy cuticle, diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaf interior must be facilitated through stomata, tiny pores that facilitate the exchange of gas.
All bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) share certain characteristics, which are...
alternation of multicellular generations
True or false?
The gametophyte is reduced and dependent on the sporophyte.
The eggs of seed plants are fertilized within ovules, and the ovules then develop into _____.
develope into seeds
The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always _____.
produce spores
What do all seed plants produce?
Separate male and female spores.
What do both gymnosperms and angiosperms have?
pollen, seeds, and ovules.
What do gymnosperms nto produce?
What is the male gametophyte in pine is commonly known as?
Human survival literally depends on the produce of what?
Angiosperms, the source of our major food crops, including rice, wheat, corn, and barley. They also provide cotton and linen, and medicines like digitalis and codeine. Rubber, coffee, chocolate, and aromatic oils come from flowering plants. Woods such as oak, cherry, and walnut are derived from angiosperms.
What is fruit? And describe it.
A fruit is a mature ovary, has seeds that develope after fertilization, the wall of the ovary thickens to form the fruit. Fruit protects dormant seeds.
Defien momocot, dicot, and eudicot.
Monocot-A subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess one embryonic seed leaf, or cotyledon.
Dicot-A subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.
Eudicot-A large subgroup of traditionally dicot angiosperms including roses, peas, buttercups, sunflowers, oaks, and maples.
What does fungi have that plants do not?
Fungi are heterotrophic and plants are autotrophic.
How does fungi obtain nutrients?
Describe how non-motile fungi seek new food.
-the release of spores; disperse by spores
Describe the anatomy of lichens.
the fungal component is most commonly an ascomycete; but several basidiomycete lichens are known. Lichen is a ssymbiotic association of millions of photosynthetic microorganisms held in a mesh of fungal hyphae.
What are fungi classified on the basis of?
Zygomycota produce zygosporangia. Ascomycota produce asci. Basidiomycota produce basidiocarps.
Molecular evidence suggests that fungi...
There is evidence that both fungi and animals evolved from aquatic flagellated protists
Fungi are said to be absorptive heterotrophs rather than ingestive ones for what reason?
because they digest organic matter outside their bodies
What are the cell walls of fungi are composed of?
chitin, the chitin found in fungal cell walls is identical to the chitin found in the exoskeleton of arthropods.
The hyphae of parasitic fungi that are modified to penetrate and absorb nutrients from host tissue are called what?
Haustoria, the modified hyphae of parasitic fungi
In fungi what does the mycelium do?
Obtaining food