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23 Cards in this Set

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karyotype
arrangement of chromosomes in pairs by their size, shape, and general appearance in mitotic metaphase
autosomes
non-sex chromosomes
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine an organism's gender; exists in the form of X and Y
genotype
genetic make-up of an organism
phenotype
physical appearance of an organism
Law of Dominance
every gene is expressed in at least two alleles; if a dominant allele is present, it will always be expressed, while a recessive allele will only be expressed in homozygous form
Law of Independent Assortment
each pair of alleles are sorted into gametes in gamete formation independently
Law of Segregation
two alleles seperate in gamete formation and each gamete receives one allele
codominance
type of inheritance in which both alleles of a gene are expressed simultaneously (AB-type blood is an example of this)
incomplete dominance
type of inheritance in which one allele doesn't completely dominate the other, and thus, the offspring's phentype is an intermediate of the two parental varieties
polygenic inheritance
type of inheritance in which there are many genes which are responsible for a specific gene
pleiotropy
one gene which affects various traits (i.e. Marfan syndrome)
epistasis
recessive pair of alleles at one locus that alters the phenotypic expression of a dominant allele at a second locus (i.e. albino)
multiple alleles
a specific gene that has more than two alleles (i.e. alleles for blood: A, B, O)
monohybrid cross
cross that tracks the inheritance of a single character
dihybrid cross
cross that tracks the inheritance of two characters
polygenic inheritance
additive effect of two or more alleles on a single phenotypic character
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
theory developed by Boveri and Satton, which states that genes have specific loci on chromosomes, and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment
X-linked alleles
alleles located on the X-chromosome
linkage group
alleles of different genes that are located on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
pedigree chart
a "family tree" that traces a specific trait throughout a specific amount of generations of a family
sex-linked traits
genes for a specific trait are on the x-chromosome (i.e. colorblindness, hemophilia, muscular diptrophy)
sex-influenced traits
traits influenced by hormones on the x-chromosome (i.e. male baldness)