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59 Cards in this Set

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Fred Griffith
How did his experiment work?

-Rough cells transformed to pathogenic smooth cells
-Attempted to develop vaccine for pneumonia
-showed bacterial transformation
-heat killed deadly Smooth, harmless rough injected, smooth plasmid went to live rough
Hershey and chase
-Showed DNA (phosphate) not protein (sulfur) is the genetic material

-sulfur in protein coat, after replication sulfur found in blend but not in cell, protein not injected

-phosphate inside cell, after replication not found in blend but in cell, DNA injected
bacteriophages what are they?
2 parts, one actioin
viruses that infect cells
-DNA and protein coat
-inject hereditary material into cell
DNA Nucleotide
3 Parts?
Phosphate, sugar, nitrogen base
How many different nucleotides
8

DNA/RNA each have four nucleotides
How many different nitrogen bases
5

A, T, C, G, and uracil for thymine in RNA
A
DNA
goes with T
T
goes with A
C
goes with G
G
goes with C
U
goes with A
A
RNA
goes with U
x- ray diffraction image?
action and limiting factor
relation to DNA
beam of x-ray directed at a molecule,

calculates position of atoms but not molecular structure

-not easy for diffraction unless spooled (dna)
Semiconservative nature

DNA Replication- copying itself
strand splits, two new strands,

Half new/ Half old
How does

DNA Polymerase build?
builds on 3 prime end

there is a bondable -OH
hydroxyl group
structure of DNA
double, deoxyribose
structure of RNA
single, ribose
definition

DNA ligase
enzyme seals
short nucleotide strands into continuous strand

seals cut ends, joins phosphate
who does DNA
repair?
ligase, polymerase,
others

ligase helps with repairing restrictioin
Transcription
making RNA from DNA
promotor

25,000 for that many genes in humans
start of transcription

polymerase attaches to
RNA polymerase
builds RNA strand
polysome
group of ribosomes that use the same mRNA transcript over and over
Mature RNA

introns-not needed

exons, left in
poly-A tail, wound up, 200 adenines, helps in nucleotide production chopped off

guanine cap

formed in the nucleus and leaves shortly
translation
assembling amino acids using mRNA template
codons

20 amino acids
64 of them,
triplets,

translates to an amino acid

61 make acids, 3 are stop

one is a start methionine
tRNA

has
anticodon
transfers amino acids to specific codons on mRNA

anticodons complimentary to codons, can be deciphered
-initiation
-elongation
-termination
-tRNA starter and transcript onto a ribosome, initiation complex is big and small ribosomal subunit

-polypeptide chain forms as transcript moves through, threading a needle

-stop codon, transcript is released by enzyme action
gene mutations
small scale changes in nucleotide sequenence
base pair substitution
wrong nucleotide is substituted

no change or wrong amino acid is put into protein
frameshifts

cause big problem after where shift occurs
insertions, deletions

change the 3 at a time reading frame,
transposable elements
DNA regions that move to other parts of the molecule
mutation rate
rate at which mutations occur in replication
mutagens
mutation causing elements such as

ionizing radiatioin
alkylating agents
carcinogens, add ethyl group making more susceptible to break
aptosis
name for cell destruction
ICE-like proteases
protein cleaving enzymes

method of death
gene regulation-

not all genes are expressed at the same time
regulatory proteins:

negative and positive control systems
Lac operon

in prokaryotes
(negative)
promotor, operator, 3 enzymes
operator
(negative
binding site for repressor that blocks transcription by RNA polymerase
repressor
(negative)
shape altered by lactose,
sugars, wont bind if shape altered, allosteric
positive control
activator pushes RNA polymerase,

allosteric site allows activator to bond, doesn't happen when no allosteric
activator protein

allosteric
CAP binds to polymerase and pushes it

needs cAMP to bind, around when not much glucose
positive vs negative
positive works when allosteric intervention

negative stopped by allosteric intervention
cell differentiation
allows cells in multicelled organisms to become varied and specialized in function
hormones


enhancers
signalling molecules

enhancers are base sequences that are binding sites
phytochrome
plant reacts to sun
tumor
cancerous tissue mass
oncogene

disruption of cell cycle
gene having the potential to induce cancerous transformation
metastasis
abnormal cell migration and infiltration
recombinant DNA technology

recombinant DNA
analysis of genetic changes

DNA of 2 organisms, started with plasmids
vector
plasmid or virus carries a gene from one organism to another
plasmid
loop of DNA outside of main DNA strand

not essential for survival

can be transferred
restriction enzymes
cut DNA at specific sites, usually cause sticky ends
polymerase
chain
reaction

amplification technique
amplifies DNA
1)segment
2)primer finds start section,
heat splits DNA
3)add nucleotides and ligase
repeat
cDNA
copied DNA, reverse transcribed from mature RNA with introns snipped so bacteria can read
DNA library

RFLPs
collection of cut segments

differences of electrophoresis patterns, DNA fingerprint
Electrophoresis

crime scene
separates different sizes

mutated genes sections (AAAAATTTTT) identify individuals

not part of coding DNA
Gene therapy
replacing faulty gene with normal one

very experimental but shows promise