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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
animal's fuel is managed by:
the human body
example: glucose regulation
essential nutrients
substances that the animals cannot make for itself from any raw materials and therefore must obtain in a prefabricated form
Amino acids
20 amino acids
most animals can make half of these
8 essential amino acids
Fatty acids
essential fatty acids we can't make include linoleic acids
organic molecules that act as co-enzymes
13 essential vitamins taht are esential to humans
Ions we need to take
ex. calcium and iron
Filter feeders
sift small food paritcles from the water ex. Baleen whales
Substrated feeders
live in or on their food source, eating their way through food ex. maggots
fluid feeders
make their living sucking nutrient rich fluids from a living host ex. Mosquitos leeches, hummingbirds
are considered parasites
Bulk feeders
eat relatively large pieces of food ex. snakes, humans
4 main stages of food processing
the act of eating is only the first stage of food processing
Second stage, breaking food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
Cells take th molecules out of digestive system
Undigestable material has to be eliminated
Intracellular digestion
unusual for animals b/c hydrolytic enzymes break down food w/out digesting the cells cytoplasm
only in the prorifera kingdom i.e. sponges
Extracellular by hydrolysis
breakdown food outside cells
Gastrovascular cavities- digestive sacs
only in the cnidarians(jellyfish) and flatworms
Complete digestive tract-alimentary canal
mouth, digestive tubes, anus
Food moves in one direction so it is specialized
In mamalian digestive systems food moves by:
Parts are closed off by:
Accesory organs
Salivary glands
Oral Cavity
presence of food triggers functions
process food
salivary amylase
enzyme that hydrolyzes stach and glycogen into small polysaccharides
ball of food that the tongue rolls into
closes off windpipe, it opens to the esophagus and trachea
conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by peristalsis
located in the upper abdominal cavity
stores food and performs preliminary digestion
gastric juices
contian hydrochloric acid from pareital cells and the enzyme pepsin from chief cells
acid chyme
the stomach contents becmoe a nutrient rich broth which is acid chyme
pyloric sphincter
opening from the stomach to the smal intestine
small intestine
major organ of digestion and absorption
6 meters long and a ph of 8
where most of digestion occurs
Jejunum and ileum
functions to absorb water and nutrients
occurs maily in the small intestine
bile salts aid in digestion and absorption of fats
It is produced in the liver but STORED in the gallbladder
Carbohydrate digestion (starch and glycogen)
begins in the oral cavity with the enzyme salivary amylase then ocntinues into the small intestine
protein digestion
begins in the stomach
proteins are broken p into their amino acids or into small peptides
Enzymes-trypsi, chymotrypsi, Dipeptidease etc. secreted by the intestinal epithelium
Fat Digestion
most undigested until it reaches the small intestine
bile salts act to keep them in fat droplets
then they are broken down by enzyme lipase that hydrolyzes fat molecules into glycerol fatty acids and glycerides
most occurs in the duodenum a large surface area
in each villus there is:
a capillary bed or net
a lacteal